2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章

发布时间:2021-09-18
2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章

2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第1章


(a) An assistant of yours has been criticised over a piece of assessed work that he produced for his study course for giving the definition of a non-current asset as ‘a physical asset of substantial cost, owned by the company, which will last longer than one year’.

Required:

Provide an explanation to your assistant of the weaknesses in his definition of non-current assets when

compared to the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) view of assets. (4 marks)

(b) The same assistant has encountered the following matters during the preparation of the draft financial statements of Darby for the year ending 30 September 2009. He has given an explanation of his treatment of them.

(i) Darby spent $200,000 sending its staff on training courses during the year. This has already led to an

improvement in the company’s efficiency and resulted in cost savings. The organiser of the course has stated that the benefits from the training should last for a minimum of four years. The assistant has therefore treated the cost of the training as an intangible asset and charged six months’ amortisation based on the average date during the year on which the training courses were completed. (3 marks)

(ii) During the year the company started research work with a view to the eventual development of a new

processor chip. By 30 September 2009 it had spent $1·6 million on this project. Darby has a past history

of being particularly successful in bringing similar projects to a profitable conclusion. As a consequence the

assistant has treated the expenditure to date on this project as an asset in the statement of financial position.

Darby was also commissioned by a customer to research and, if feasible, produce a computer system to

install in motor vehicles that can automatically stop the vehicle if it is about to be involved in a collision. At

30 September 2009, Darby had spent $2·4 million on this project, but at this date it was uncertain as to

whether the project would be successful. As a consequence the assistant has treated the $2·4 million as an

expense in the income statement. (4 marks)

(iii) Darby signed a contract (for an initial three years) in August 2009 with a company called Media Today to

install a satellite dish and cabling system to a newly built group of residential apartments. Media Today will

provide telephone and television services to the residents of the apartments via the satellite system and pay

Darby $50,000 per annum commencing in December 2009. Work on the installation commenced on

1 September 2009 and the expenditure to 30 September 2009 was $58,000. The installation is expected

to be completed by 31 October 2009. Previous experience with similar contracts indicates that Darby will

make a total profit of $40,000 over the three years on this initial contract. The assistant correctly recorded

the costs to 30 September 2009 of $58,000 as a non-current asset, but then wrote this amount down to

$40,000 (the expected total profit) because he believed the asset to be impaired.

The contract is not a finance lease. Ignore discounting. (4 marks)

Required:

For each of the above items (i) to (iii) comment on the assistant’s treatment of them in the financial

statements for the year ended 30 September 2009 and advise him how they should be treated under

International Financial Reporting Standards.

Note: the mark allocation is shown against each of the three items above.

正确答案:
(a)Therearefourelementstotheassistant’sdefinitionofanon-currentassetandheissubstantiallyincorrectinrespectofallofthem.Thetermnon-currentassetswillnormallyincludeintangibleassetsandcertaininvestments;theuseoftheterm‘physicalasset’wouldbespecifictotangibleassetsonly.Whilstitisusuallythecasethatnon-currentassetsareofrelativelyhighvaluethisisnotadefiningaspect.Awastepaperbinmayexhibitthecharacteristicsofanon-currentasset,butonthegroundsofmaterialityitisunlikelytobetreatedassuch.Furthermorethepastcostofanassetmaybeirrelevant;nomatterhowmuchanassethascost,itistheexpectationoffutureeconomicbenefitsflowingfromaresource(normallyintheform.offuturecashinflows)thatdefinesanassetaccordingtotheIASB’sFrameworkforthepreparationandpresentationoffinancialstatements.Theconceptofownershipisnolongeracriticalaspectofthedefinitionofanasset.Itisprobablythecasethatmostnoncurrentassetsinanentity’sstatementoffinancialpositionareownedbytheentity;however,itistheabilityto‘control’assets(includingpreventingothersfromhavingaccesstothem)thatisnowadefiningfeature.Forexample:thisisanimportantcharacteristicintreatingafinanceleaseasanassetofthelesseeratherthanthelessor.Itisalsotruethatmostnon-currentassetswillbeusedbyanentityformorethanoneyearandapartofthedefinitionofproperty,plantandequipmentinIAS16Property,plantandequipmentreferstoanexpectationofuseinmorethanoneperiod,butthisisnotnecessarilyalwaysthecase.Itmaybethatanon-currentassetisacquiredwhichprovesunsuitablefortheentity’sintendeduseorisdamagedinanaccident.Inthesecircumstancesassetsmaynothavebeenusedforlongerthanayear,butneverthelesstheywerereportedasnon-currentsduringthetimetheywereinuse.Anon-currentassetmaybewithinayearoftheendofitsusefullifebut(unlessasaleagreementhasbeenreachedunderIFRS5Non-currentassetsheldforsaleanddiscontinuedoperations)wouldstillbereportedasanon-currentassetifitwasstillgivingeconomicbenefits.Anotherdefiningaspectofnon-currentassetsistheirintendedusei.e.heldforcontinuinguseintheproduction,supplyofgoodsorservices,forrentaltoothersorforadministrativepurposes.(b)(i)TheexpenditureonthetrainingcoursesmayexhibitthecharacteristicsofanassetinthattheyhaveandwillcontinuetobringfutureeconomicbenefitsbywayofincreasedefficiencyandcostsavingstoDarby.However,theexpenditurecannotberecognisedasanassetonthestatementoffinancialpositionandmustbechargedasanexpenseasthecostisincurred.Themainreasonforthislieswiththeissueof’control’;itisDarby’semployeesthathavethe‘skills’providedbythecourses,buttheemployeescanleavethecompanyandtaketheirskillswiththemor,throughaccidentorinjury,maybedeprivedofthoseskills.AlsothecapitalisationofstafftrainingcostsisspecificallyprohibitedunderInternationalFinancialReportingStandards(specificallyIAS38Intangibleassets).(ii)Thequestionspecificallystatesthatthecostsincurredtodateonthedevelopmentofthenewprocessorchipareresearchcosts.IAS38statesthatresearchcostsmustbeexpensed.Thisismainlybecauseresearchistherelativelyearlystageofanewprojectandanyfuturebenefitsaresofarinthefuturethattheycannotbeconsideredtomeetthedefinitionofanasset(probablefutureeconomicbenefits),despitethegoodrecordofsuccessinthepastwithsimilarprojects.Althoughtheworkontheautomaticvehiclebrakingsystemisstillattheresearchstage,thisisdifferentinnaturefromthepreviousexampleastheworkhasbeencommissionedbyacustomer,Assuch,fromtheperspectiveofDarby,itisworkinprogress(acurrentasset)andshouldnotbewrittenoffasanexpense.Anoteofcautionshouldbeaddedhereinthatthequestionsaysthatthesuccessoftheprojectisuncertainwhichpresumablymeansitmaynotbecompleted.ThisdoesnotmeanthatDarbywillnotreceivepaymentfortheworkithascarriedout,butitshouldbecheckedtothecontracttoensurethattheamountithasspenttodate($2·4million)willberecoverable.Intheeventthatsay,forexample,thecontractstatedthatonly$2millionwouldbeallowedforresearchcosts,thiswouldplacealimitonhowmuchDarbycouldtreatasworkinprogress.Ifthiswerethecasethen,forthisexample,Darbywouldhavetoexpense$400,000andtreatonly$2millionasworkinprogress.(iii)Thequestionsuggeststhecorrecttreatmentforthiskindofcontractistotreatthecostsoftheinstallationasanon-currentassetand(presumably)depreciateitoveritsexpectedlifeof(atleast)threeyearsfromwhenitbecomesavailableforuse.Inthiscasetheassetwillnotcomeintouseuntilthenextfinancialyear/reportingperiodandnodepreciationneedstobeprovidedat30September2009.Thecapitalisedcoststodateof$58,000shouldonlybewrittendownifthereisevidencethattheassethasbecomeimpaired.Impairmentoccurswheretherecoverableamountofanassetislessthanitscarryingamount.Theassistantappearstobelievethattherecoverableamountisthefutureprofit,whereas(inthiscase)itisthefuture(net)cashinflows.Thusanyimpairmenttestat30September2009shouldcomparethecarryingamountof$58,000withtheexpectednetcashflowfromthesystemof$98,000($50,000perannumforthreeyearslessfuturecashoutflowstocompletiontheinstallationof$52,000(seenotebelow)).Asthefuturenetcashflowsareinexcessofthecarryingamount,theassetisnotimpairedanditshouldnotbewrittendownbutshownasanon-currentasset(underconstruction)atcostof$58,000.Note:asthecontractisexpectedtomakeaprofitof$40,000onincomeof$150,000,thetotalcostsmustbe$110,000,withcoststodateat$58,000thisleavescompletioncostsof$52,000.


(c) Risk committee members can be either executive or non-executive.

Required:

(i) Distinguish between executive and non-executive directors. (2 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Risk committee members can be either executive on non-executive.
(i) Distinguish between executive and non-executive directors
Executive directors are full time members of staff, have management positions in the organisation, are part of the
executive structure and typically have industry or activity-relevant knowledge or expertise, which is the basis of their
value to the organisation.
Non-executive directors are engaged part time by the organisation, bring relevant independent, external input and
scrutiny to the board, and typically occupy positions in the committee structure.


(d) Suggest a set of SIX performance measures which the directors of SSH could use in order to assess the

quality of service provided to its clients. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(d) The following performance measures which could be used to assess the quality of service provided to its clients:
– The reliability of staff in keeping to scheduled appointment times with clients
– The responsiveness of staff to client enquiries or requests for assistance
– The quality of communications between SSH and its clients
– The competence of its staff in providing training to its clients
– The access times to staff upon the request of clients
– The availability of staff to meet emergency needs of clients
– The security of the data of its client base.
Notes: (i) Only six performance measures were required
(ii) Other relevant performance measures would be acceptable.


(ii) the strategy of the business regarding its treasury policies. (3 marks)

(Marks will be awarded in part (b) for the identification and discussion of relevant points and for the style. of the

report.)

正确答案:
(ii) Strategy of the business regarding its treasury policies
Treasury policies are reviewed regularly by the Board. It is group policy to account for all financial instruments as cash
flow hedges. As a result, changes in the fair values of financial instruments are deferred in reserves to the extent the
hedge is effective and released to profit or loss in the time periods in which the hedged item impacts profit or loss.
The Group contracts fixed rate currency swaps and issues floating to fixed rate interest rate swaps to meet the objective
of protecting borrowing costs. The cash flow effects of the interest rate swaps match the cash flows on the underlying
instruments so that there is no net cash flow effect from movements in market interest rates. If the interest rate swaps
had not been transacted there could have been an increase in the annual net interest payable to the Group. The strategy
of the group is to minimise the exposure to interest rate fluctuations.


Mr Li, a photographer, had his photos published in the July 2014 edition of the tourism journal. The total fee was RMB20,000 and the publisher agreed to pay Mr Li by two instalments, one of RMB18,000 in June 2014 and the balance of RMB2,000 in August 2014. The same photos were republished by the government in a promotion brochure in August 2014 and Mr Li was paid a further fee of RMB3,000 by the government.

What is the total amount of individual income tax (IIT) which Mr Li will pay on the above incomes?

A.RMB2,492

B.RMB2,576

C.RMB2,548

D.RMB3,680

正确答案:C

20,000 x (1 – 20%) x 20% x 70% + (3,000 – 800) x 20% x 70% = RMB2,548


(c) Critically discuss the adoption of activity-based management (ABM) in companies such as TOC. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Activity-based management (ABM) is a method of identifying and evaluating activities that a business performs using
activity-based costing to carry out a value chain analysis or a re-engineering initiative to improve strategic and operational
decisions in an organisation. Activity-based costing establishes relationships between overhead costs and activities so that
overhead costs can be more precisely allocated to products, services, or customer segments. Activity-based management
focuses on managing activities to reduce costs and improve customer value.
Kaplan and Cooper (1998) divide ABM into operational ABM and strategic ABM:
Operational ABM is about ‘doing things right’, using ABC information to improve efficiency. Those activities which add value
to the product can be identified and improved. Activities that don’t add value are the ones that need to be reduced to cut costs
without reducing product value.
Strategic ABM is about ‘doing the right things’, using ABC information to decide which products to develop and which
activities to use. This can also be used for customer profitability analysis, identifying which customers are the most profitable
and focusing on them more.
A risk with ABM is that some activities have an implicit value, not necessarily reflected in a financial value added to any
product. For instance a particularly pleasant workplace can help attract and retain the best staff, but may not be identified as
adding value in operational ABM. A customer that represents a loss based on committed activities, but that opens up leads
in a new market, may be identified as a low value customer by a strategic ABM process.
ABM can give middle managers an understanding of costs to other teams to help them make decisions that benefit the whole
organisation, not just their activities’ bottom line.


11 The following information is available for Orset, a sole trader who does not keep full accounting records:

$

Inventory 1 July 2004 138,600

30 June 2005 149,100

Purchases for year ended 30 June 2005 716,100

Orset makes a standard gross profit of 30 per cent on sales.

Based on these figures, what is Orset’s sales figure for the year ended 30 June 2005?

A $2,352,000

B $1,038,000

C $917,280

D $1,008,000

正确答案:D


(b) Describe the principal audit procedures to be carried out in respect of the following:

(i) The measurement of the share-based payment expense; (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Principal audit procedures – measurement of share-based payment expense
– Obtain management calculation of the expense and agree the following from the calculation to the contractual
terms of the scheme:
– Number of employees and executives granted options
– Number of options granted per employee
– The official grant date of the share options
– Vesting period for the scheme
– Required performance conditions attached to the options.
– Recalculate the expense and check that the fair value has been correctly spread over the stated vesting period.
– Agree fair value of share options to specialist’s report and calculation, and evaluate whether the specialist report is
a reliable source of evidence.
– Agree that the fair value calculated is at the grant date.
Tutorial note: A specialist such as a chartered financial analyst would commonly be used to calculate the fair value
of non-traded share options at the grant date, using models such as the Black-Scholes Model.
– Obtain and review a forecast of staffing levels or employee turnover rates for the duration of the vesting period, and
scrutinise the assumptions used to predict level of staff turnover.
– Discuss previous levels of staff turnover with a representative of the human resources department and query why
0% staff turnover has been predicted for the next three years.
– Check the sensitivity of the calculations to a change in the assumptions used in the valuation, focusing on the
assumption of 0% staff turnover.
– Obtain written representation from management confirming that the assumptions used in measuring the expense
are reasonable.
Tutorial note: A high degree of scepticism must be used by the auditor when conducting the final three procedures
due to the management assumption of 0% staff turnover during the vesting period.


(c) the deferred tax implications (with suitable calculations) for the company which arise from the recognition

of a remuneration expense for the directors’ share options. (7 marks)

正确答案:


2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第2章


(ii) authority; (3 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) AUTHORITY is the scope and amount of discretion given to a person to make decisions by virtue of the position held within the organisation. The authority and power structure of an organisation defines the part each member of the organisation is expected to perform. and the relationship between the organisation’s members so that its efforts are effective. The source of authority may be top down (as in formal organisations) or bottom up (as in social organizations and politics). In the scenario, authority is from the top and should be delegated downwards.


(b) Analyse THREE potential problems, based solely on the information provided above, that TMC might

encounter in the acquisition of CBC. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Three potential problems that TMC might encounter in the proposed acquisition of CBC are as follows:
(i) TMC is forecast to have a 22% share of the market for disposable nappies at the end of 2008. If TMC was to acquire
CBC at that time it would then have a market share of ($681m + $155m)/$3,095m = 27%. Much will depend on
prevailing legislation. For example, in the UK it might be the case that the Director General of Fair Trading may ask the
Competition Commission (CC) to investigate if any organisation controls 25% or more of the market. The Secretary of
State may do likewise in circumstances where the proposed takeover would lead to the creation of a firm that would
control 25% or more of the market. (Similar examples from other countries would be equally acceptable.)
(ii) The directors of TMC need to be aware of the precise nature of the cultural problems that CBC has experienced during
recent years as this could be very damaging to its business if the acquisition of CBC goes ahead. In an extreme case
the organisational cultures of TMC and CBC might be incompatible. The directors of TMC need to make a very careful
assessment as to whether it would be possible to transform. a negative culture into a positive one. If they consider that
this would prove to be very difficult then they might be best advised not to proceed with the acquisition.
(iii) The directors of TMC have no experience of managing such acquisitions and this might mean that the integration of CBC
into TMC would prove problematic. It is probable that the systems are different as well as the management styles,
employee skills and business infrastructure.
(Alternative relevant discussion would be acceptable)


(c) At a recent meeting of the board of directors, the managing director of Envico Ltd said that he considered it

essential to be able to assess the ‘value for money’ of each seminar. He suggested that the quality of the speakers

and the comfort of the seminar rooms were two assessment criteria that should be used in order to assess the

‘value for money’ of each seminar.

Required:

Discuss SIX separate and distinct assessment criteria (including those suggested by the managing director),

that would enable the management of Envico Ltd to assess the ‘value for money’ of each seminar.

(6 marks)

正确答案:
(c) The following are six separate and distinct assessment criteria (including those suggested by the managing director), that
would enable the management of Envico Ltd to assess the ‘value for money’ of each seminar. The assessment criteria are
presented as questions that would comprise the contents of a questionnaire but other presentations would have been equally
acceptable.
(1) Did the course meet your objectives?
‘Value for money’ may, in part, be assessed by reference to the ‘effectiveness’ of the service provision. Effectiveness may
be viewed in this context as meeting the objectives of attendees. All attendees have similar but varying objectives and
hence it is vital that Envico Ltd meets the objectives of all attendees if seminars are to constitute ‘value for money’.
(2) How would you rate the quality of the speakers?
A primary resource of Envico Ltd is its speakers and thus it is important to gauge how they were perceived to perform
by the attendees.
(3) How would you rate comfort, cleanliness and facilities of the seminar rooms?
Again, a principal resource, which is consumed when providing the service, is the seminar room and the facilities
contained within it. Attendees will find a clean and ergonomically designed room more conducive for education and
training activities.
(4) How would you assess the quality of the course materials?
Since Envico Ltd undertakes the provision of educational and training seminars then the quality of course materials
provided assumes critical significance as they represent the ‘raison d’être’ of Envico Ltd. If they are perceived to be of
high quality they may act as a good advertisement for the company. Conversely, poor quality course materials will cause
Envico Ltd to be perceived poorly.
(5) How strongly would you recommend Envico courses to friends and colleagues?
This is a very important consideration since ‘word of mouth’ may represent the best means of advertising the services
provided by Envico Ltd and is indicative of whether attendees consider that they have received ‘value for money’ from
Envico Ltd.
(6) Do you consider that you could have achieved your objectives in attending the course in a more expedient manner? If
so, please detail below.
This question acknowledges that the time of attendees is a scarce resource and hence there may well be an opportunity
cost in attending seminars in addition to the explicit costs such as course fees, travel and subsistence costs etc. It is
essential that Envico Ltd is flexible in its approach to meeting the needs of clients where attendance at seminars is either
impracticable or undesirable. Perhaps a series of interactive CDs and/or video tuition may be more appropriate in certain
instances.


(ii) Set out the information required by Jane in connection with the administration of the company’s tax

affairs and identify any penalties that may already be payable. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Administration of the company’s tax affairs
The corporation tax return must be submitted within 12 months of the end of the accounting period, i.e. by 5 April
2008.
Corporation tax is due nine months and one day after the end of the accounting period, i.e. by 6 January 2008.
HMRC have 12 months from the filing date to enquire into the corporation tax return. This deadline is extended if the
return is submitted late. Once this deadline has passed the return can be regarded as agreed provided it includes all
necessary information and there has been no loss of tax due to the company’s fraud or negligence.
Jane should have notified HMRC by 5 July 2006 that Speak Write Ltd’s first accounting period began on 6 April 2006.
The penalty for failing to notify is a maximum of £3,000.


(iii) cheese. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) Cheese
■ Examine the terms of sales to Abingdon Bank – confirm the bank’s legal title (e.g. if GVF were to cease to trade
and so could not exercise buy-back option).
■ Obtain a direct confirmation from the bank of the cost of inventory sold by GVF to Abingdon Bank and the amount
re-purchased as at 30 September 2005 (the net amount being the outstanding loan).
■ Inspect the cheese as at 30 September 2005 (e.g. during the physical inventory count) paying particular attention
to the factors which indicate the age (and strength) of the cheese (e.g. its location or physical appearance).
■ Observe how the cheese is stored – if on steel shelves discuss with GVF’s management whether its net realisable
value has been reduced below cost.
■ Test check, on a sample basis, the costing records supporting the cost of batches of cheese.
■ Confirm that the cost of inventory sold to the bank is included in inventory as at 30 September 2005 and the
nature of the bank security adequately disclosed.
■ Agree the repurchase of cheese which has reached maturity at cost plus 7% per six months to purchase invoices
(or equivalent contracts) and cash book payments.
■ Test check GVF’s inventory-ageing records to production records. Confirm the carrying amount of inventory as at
30 September 2005 that will not be sold until after 30 September 2006, and agree to the amount disclosed in
the notes to inventory as a ‘non-current’ portion.


(iv) Tyre recently undertook a sales campaign whereby customers can obtain free car accessories, by presenting a

coupon, which has been included in an advertisement in a national newspaper, on the purchase of a vehicle.

The offer is valid for a limited time period from 1 January 2006 until 31 July 2006. The management are unsure

as to how to treat this offer in the financial statements for the year ended 31 May 2006.

(5 marks)

Required:

Advise the directors of Tyre on how to treat the above items in the financial statements for the year ended

31 May 2006.

(The mark allocation is shown against each of the above items)

正确答案:
(iv) Car accessories
An obligation should not be recognised for the coupons and no provision created under IAS37 ‘Provisions, Contingent
Liabilities and Contingent Assets’. A provision should only be recognised where there is an obligating event. There has to be
a present obligation (legal or constructive), the probability of an outflow of resources and the ability to make a reliable estimate
of the amount of the obligation. These conditions do not seem to have been met. Until the vehicle is purchased the
accessories cannot be obtained. That is the point at which the present obligation arises, the outflow of resources occurs and
an estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. When the car is purchased, the accessories become part of the
cost of the sale. The revenue recognised will be the amount received from the customer (the sales price). The revenue will
not be grossed up to include the value of the accessories.


3 The managers of Daylon plc are reviewing the company’s investment portfolio. About 15% of the portfolio is represented by a holding of 5,550,000 ordinary shares of Mondglobe plc. The managers are concerned about the effect on portfolio value if the price of Mondglobe’s shares should fall, and are considering selling the shares. Daylon’s investment bank has suggested that the risk of Mondglobe’s shares falling by more than 5% from their current value could be protected against by buying an over the counter option. The investment bank is prepared to sell an appropriate six month option to Daylon for £250,000.

Other information:

(i) The current market price of Mondglobe’s ordinary shares is 360 pence.

(ii) The annual volatility (variance) of Mondglobe’s shares for the last year was 169%.

(iii) The risk free rate is 4% per year.

(iv) No dividend is expected to be paid by Mondglobe during the next six months.

Required:

(a) Evaluate whether or not the price at which the investment bank is willing to sell the option is a fair price.(10 marks)

正确答案:

3 (a) The investment bank is offering to sell to Daylon plc an option to sell Mondglobe ordinary shares at a price no worse than 5% below the current market price of 360 pence. This is a put option on Mondglobe shares at a price of 342 pence. The Black-Scholes option pricing model may be used to estimate whether or not the option price is a fair price. The value of a put option may be found by first estimating the value of a call option and then using the put-call parity theorem.
Basic data:
Share price 360 pence
Exercise price 342 pence
Risk free rate 4% (0·04)
Volatility is measured by the standard deviation. The variance is 169% therefore the standard deviation, σ is 13% (0·13)
The relevant period is six months (0·5)


(b) With reference to CF Co, explain the ethical and other professional issues raised. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(b) There are several issues that must be addressed as a matter of urgency:
Extra work must be planned to discover the extent of the breakdown in internal controls that occurred during the year. It is
important to decide whether the errors were isolated, or continued through the accounting period and whether similar errors
have occurred in other areas e.g. cash receipts from existing customers or cash payments. A review of the working papers of
the internal audit team should be carried out as soon as possible. The materiality of the errors should be documented.
Errors discovered in the accounting systems will have serious implications for the planned audit approach of new customer
deposits. Nate & Co must plan to expand audit testing on this area as control risk is high. Cash deposits will represent a
significant class of transaction in CF Co. A more detailed substantive approach than used in prior year audits may be needed
in this material area if limited reliance can be placed on internal controls.
A combination of the time spent investigating the reasons for the errors, their materiality, and a detailed substantive audit on
this area means that the audit is likely to take longer than previously anticipated. This may have cost and recoverability
implications. Extra staff may need to be assigned to the audit team, and the deadline for completion of audit procedures may
need to be extended. This will need to be discussed with CF Co.
Due to the increased audit risk, Nate & Co should consider increasing review procedures throughout the audit. In addition CF
Co is likely to be a highly regulated company as it operates in financial services, increasing possible attention focused on the
audit opinion. These two factors indicate that a second partner review would be recommended.
A separate issue is that of Jin Sayed offering advice to the internal audit team. The first problem raised is that of quality control.
A new and junior member of the audit team should be subject to close direction and supervision which does not appear to
have been the case during this assignment.
Secondly, Jin Sayed should not have offered advice to the internal audit team. On being made aware of the errors, he should
have alerted a senior member of the audit team, who then would have decided the action to be taken. This implies that he
does not understand the limited extent of his responsibilities as a junior member of the audit team. Nate & Co may wish to
review the training provided to new members of staff, as it should be made clear when matters should be reported to a senior,
and when matters can be dealt with by the individual.
Thirdly, Jin Sayed must be questioned to discover what exactly he advised the internal audit team to do. Despite his academic
qualification, he has little practical experience in the financial information systems of CF Co. He may have given inappropriate
advice, and it will be crucial to confirm that no action has been taken by the internal audit team.
The audit partner should consider if Nate & Co are at risk because of the advice that has been provided by Jin Sayed. As he
is a member of the audit team, his advice would be considered by the client as advice offered by Nate & Co, and the partner
should ascertain by discussion with the client whether this advice has been acted upon.
Finally Nate & Co should consider whether as a firm they could provide the review of the financial information technology
system, as requested by CF Co. IFAC’s Code of Ethics, and ACCA’s Code of Ethics and Conduct places restrictions on the
provision of non-audit services. Nate & Co must be clear in what exactly the ‘review’ will involve.
Providing a summary of weaknesses in the system, with appropriate recommendations is considered part of normal audit
procedures. However, given the errors that have arisen in the year, CF Co may require Nate & Co to design and implement
changes to the system. This would constitute a self-review threat and should only be considered if significant safeguards are
put in place, for example, using a separate team to provide the non-audit service and/or having a second partner review of
the work.


4 You are an audit manager in Smith & Co, a firm of Chartered Certified Accountants. You have recently been made

responsible for reviewing invoices raised to clients and for monitoring your firm’s credit control procedures. Several

matters came to light during your most recent review of client invoice files:

Norman Co, a large private company, has not paid an invoice from Smith & Co dated 5 June 2007 for work in respect

of the financial statement audit for the year ended 28 February 2007. A file note dated 30 November 2007 states

that Norman Co is suffering poor cash flows and is unable to pay the balance. This is the only piece of information

in the file you are reviewing relating to the invoice. You are aware that the final audit work for the year ended

28 February 2008, which has not yet been invoiced, is nearly complete and the audit report is due to be issued

imminently.

Wallace Co, a private company whose business is the manufacture of industrial machinery, has paid all invoices

relating to the recently completed audit planning for the year ended 31 May 2008. However, in the invoice file you

notice an invoice received by your firm from Wallace Co. The invoice is addressed to Valerie Hobson, the manager

responsible for the audit of Wallace Co. The invoice relates to the rental of an area in Wallace Co’s empty warehouse,

with the following comment handwritten on the invoice: ‘rental space being used for storage of Ms Hobson’s

speedboat for six months – she is our auditor, so only charge a nominal sum of $100’. When asked about the invoice,

Valerie Hobson said that the invoice should have been sent to her private address. You are aware that Wallace Co

sometimes uses the empty warehouse for rental income, though this is not the main trading income of the company.

In the ‘miscellaneous invoices raised’ file, an invoice dated last week has been raised to Software Supply Co, not a

client of your firm. The comment box on the invoice contains the note ‘referral fee for recommending Software Supply

Co to several audit clients regarding the supply of bespoke accounting software’.

Required:

Identify and discuss the ethical and other professional issues raised by the invoice file review, and recommend

what action, if any, Smith & Co should now take in respect of:

(a) Norman Co; (8 marks)

正确答案:
4 Smith & Co
(a) Norman Co
The invoice is 12 months old and it appears doubtful whether the amount outstanding is recoverable. The fact that such an
old debt is unsettled indicates poor credit control by Smith & Co. Part of good practice management is to run a profitable,
cash generating audit function. The debt should not have been left outstanding for such a long period. It seems that little has
been done to secure payment since the file note was attached to the invoice in November 2007.
There is also a significant ethical issue raised. Overdue fees are a threat to objectivity and independence. Due to Norman Co
not yet paying for the 2007 year end audit, it could be perceived that the audit has been performed for free. Alternatively the
amount outstanding could be perceived as a loan to the client, creating a self-interest threat to independence.
The audit work for the year ended 28 February 2008 should not have been carried out without some investigation into the
unpaid invoice relating to the prior year audit. This also represents a self-interest threat – if fees are not collected before the
audit report is issued, an unmodified report could be seen as enhancing the prospect of securing payment. It seems that a
check has not been made to see if the prior year fee has been paid prior to the audit commencing.
It is also concerning that the audit report for the 2008 year end is about to be issued, but no invoice has been raised relating
to the work performed. To maximise cash inflow, the audit firm should invoice the client as soon as possible for work
performed.
Norman Co appears to be suffering financial distress. In this case there is a valid commercial reason why payment has not
been made – the client simply lacks cash. While this fact does not eliminate the problems noted above, it means that the
auditors can continue so long as adequate ethical safeguards are put in place, and after the monetary significance of the
amount outstanding has been evaluated.
It should also be considered whether Norman Co’s financial situation casts any doubt over the going concern of the company.
Continued cash flow problems are certainly a financial indicator of going concern problems, and if the company does not
resolve the cash flow problem then it may be unable to continue in operational existence.
Action to be taken:
– Discuss with the audit committee (if any) or those charged with governance of Norman Co:
The ethical problems raised by the non-payment of invoices, and a payment programme to secure cash payment in
stages if necessary, rather than demanding the total amount outstanding immediately.
– Notify the ethics partner of Smith & Co of the situation – the ethics partner should evaluate the ethical threat posed by
the situation and document the decision to continue to act for Norman Co.
– The documentation should include an evaluation of the monetary significance of the amount outstanding, as it will be
more difficult to justify the continuance of the audit appointment if the amount is significant.
– The ethics partner should ensure that a firm-wide policy is communicated to all audit managers requiring them to check
the payment of previous invoices before commencing new client work. This check should be documented.
– Consider an independent partner review of the working papers prepared for the 28 February 2008 audit.
– The audit working papers on going concern should be reviewed to ensure that sufficient evidence has been gathered to
support the audit opinion. Further procedures may be found to be necessary given the continued cash flow problems.
– Smith & Co have already acted to improve credit control by making a manager responsible for reviewing invoices and
monitoring subsequent cash collection. It is important that credit control procedures are quickly put into place to prevent
similar situations arising.


2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第3章


(b) Wallace Co; and (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Wallace Co
Being the audit manager, Valerie Hobson is clearly in a position to influence the outcome of the audit. She appears to have
entered into a private commercial transaction with her client. IFAC’s Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants does not
prohibit such commercial transactions so long as they are:
– In the normal course of business,
– At arm’s length, and
– The value is not material to either party.
In this case the transaction is in the normal course of business for the client. Rental of storage space is not the main business
of Wallace Co, but it appears that this type of transaction is quite common for the company. However the note on the invoice
indicates that a substantial discount has been offered and accepted, and so the transaction is not at arm’s length. The value
is not material to Wallace Co, but could represent a significant discount to normal commercial terms to the audit manager.
Goods and services can be received from an audit client, but only if the value is clearly insignificant.
A self-interest threat is clearly established. Valerie Hobson is benefiting financially from her position as audit manager. She
may compromise the audit approach – which has recently been planned – and furthermore she may compromise the audit
opinion to keep the client happy. She may also have other audit clients where bias could have occurred.
Action to be taken:
– The ethics partner will need to evaluate whether the value of the transaction and the discount received is ‘clearly
insignificant’.
– Her benefiting from a discount on services provided by Wallace Co, which was not disclosed, could result in disciplinary
action.
– Valerie should be removed from the audit immediately, and a new audit manager assigned to Wallace Co.
– The audit planning for year ended 31 May 2008 should be subject to independent review and amendments made where
necessary.
– The transaction should be disclosed to the audit committee of Wallace Co, or to those charged with governance.
– The ethics partner may wish to consider Valerie’s relationships with other audit clients for any evidence of transactions
or other indicators of potential bias.


TQ Company, a listed company, recently went into administration (it had become insolvent and was being managed by a firm of insolvency practitioners). A group of shareholders expressed the belief that it was the chairman, Miss Heike Hoiku, who was primarily to blame. Although the company’s management had made a number of strategic errors that brought about the company failure, the shareholders blamed the chairman for failing to hold senior management to account. In particular, they were angry that Miss Hoiku had not challenged chief executive Rupert Smith who was regarded by some as arrogant and domineering. Some said that Miss Hoiku was scared of Mr Smith.

Some shareholders wrote a letter to Miss Hoiku last year demanding that she hold Mr Smith to account for a number of previous strategic errors. They also asked her to explain why she had not warned of the strategic problems in her chairman’s statement in the annual report earlier in the year. In particular, they asked if she could remove Mr Smith from office for incompetence. Miss Hoiku replied saying that whilst she understood their concerns, it was difficult to remove a serving chief executive from office.

Some of the shareholders believed that Mr Smith may have performed better in his role had his reward package been better designed in the first place. There was previously a remuneration committee at TQ but when two of its four non-executive members left the company, they were not replaced and so the committee effectively collapsed.

Mr Smith was then able to propose his own remuneration package and Miss Hoiku did not feel able to refuse him.

He massively increased the proportion of the package that was basic salary and also awarded himself a new and much more expensive company car. Some shareholders regarded the car as ‘excessively’ expensive. In addition, suspecting that the company’s performance might deteriorate this year, he exercised all of his share options last year and immediately sold all of his shares in TQ Company.

It was noted that Mr Smith spent long periods of time travelling away on company business whilst less experienced directors struggled with implementing strategy at the company headquarters. This meant that operational procedures were often uncoordinated and this was one of the causes of the eventual strategic failure.

(a) Miss Hoiku stated that it was difficult to remove a serving chief executive from office.

Required:

(i) Explain the ways in which a company director can leave the service of a board. (4 marks)

(ii) Discuss Miss Hoiku’s statement that it is difficult to remove a serving chief executive from a board.

(4 marks)

(b) Assess, in the context of the case, the importance of the chairman’s statement to shareholders in TQ

Company’s annual report. (5 marks)

(c) Criticise the structure of the reward package that Mr Smith awarded himself. (4 marks)

(d) Criticise Miss Hoiku’s performance as chairman of TQ Company. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(a) (i) Leaving the service of a board
Resignation with or without notice. Any director is free to withdraw his or her labour at any time but there is normally
a notice period required to facilitate an orderly transition from the outgoing chief executive to the incoming one.
Not offering himself/herself for re-election. Terms of office, which are typically three years, are renewable if the director
offers him or herself for re-election and the shareholders support the renewal. Retirement usually takes place at the end
of a three-year term when the director decides not to seek re-election.
Death in service when, obviously, the director is unable to either provide notice or seek retirement.
Failure of the company. When a company fails, all directors’ contracts are cancelled although this need not signal the
end of the directors’ involvement with company affairs as there may be ongoing legal issues to be resolved.
Being removed e.g. by being dismissed for disciplinary offences. It is relatively easy to ‘prove’ a disciplinary offence but
much more difficult to ‘prove’ incompetence. The nature of disciplinary offences are usually made clear in the terms and
conditions of employment and company policy.
Prolonged absence. Directors unable to perform. their duties owing to protracted absence, for any reason, may be
removed. The length of qualifying absence period varies by jurisdiction.
Being disqualified from being a company director by a court. Directors can be banned from holding directorships by a
court for a number of reasons including personal bankruptcy and other legal issues.
Failing to be re-elected if, having offered him or herself for re-election, shareholders elect not to re-appoint.
An ‘agreed departure’ such as by providing compensation to a director to leave.

(ii) Discuss Miss Hoiku’s statement
The way that directors’ contracts and company law are written (in most countries) makes it difficult to remove a director
such as Mr Smith from office during an elected term of office so in that respect, Miss Hoiku is correct. Unless his contract
has highly specific performance targets built in to it, it is difficult to remove Mr Smith for incompetence in the
short-term as it is sometimes difficult to assess the success of strategies until some time has passed. If the alleged
incompetence is within Mr Smith’s term of office (typically three years) then it will usually be necessary to wait until the
director offers himself for re-election. The shareholders can then simply not re-elect the incompetent director (in this
case, Mr Smith). The most likely way to achieve the departure of Mr Smith within his term of office will be to ‘encourage’
him to resign by other directors failing to support him or by shareholders issuing a vote of no confidence at an AGM or
EGM. This would probably involve offering him a suitable financial package to depart at a time chosen by the other
members of the board or company shareholders.
(b) Importance of the chairman’s statement
The chairman’s statement (or president’s letter in some countries) is an important and usually voluntary item, typically carried
at the very beginning of an annual report. In general terms, it is intended to convey important messages to shareholders in
general, strategic terms. As a separate section from other narrative reporting sections of an annual report, it offers the
chairman the opportunity to inform. shareholders about issues that he or she feels it would be beneficial for them to be aware
of. This independent communication is an important part of the separation of the roles of CEO and chairman.
In the case of TQ Company, the role of the chairman is of particular importance because of the dominance of Mr Smith.
Miss Hoiku had a particular responsibility to use her most recent statement to inform. shareholders about going concern issues
notwithstanding the difficulties that might cause in her relationship with Mr Smith. Miss Hoiku has an ethical as well as an
agency responsibility to express her independence in the chairman’s statement and convey issues relevant to company value
to the company’s shareholders. She can use her chairman’s statement for this purpose.

(c) Criticise the structure of the reward package that Mr Smith awarded himself
The balance between basic to performance related pay was very poor. Mr Smith, perhaps being aware that the prospect of
gaining much performance related income was low, took the opportunity to increase the fixed element of his income to
compensate. This was not only unprofessional and unethical on Mr Smith’s part, but it also represented very bad value for
shareholders. Having exercised his share options and sold the resulting shares, there was now no element of alignment of
his package with shareholder interests at all. His award to himself of an ‘excessively’ expensive company car was also not
in the shareholders’ interests. The fact that he exercised and sold all of his share options means that he will now have no
personal financial motivation to take strategic decisions intended to increase TQ Company’s share value. This represents a
poor degree of alignment between Mr Smith’s package and the interests of TQ’s shareholders.
(d) Criticise Miss Hoiku’s performance as chairman of TQ Company
The case describes a particularly poor performance by a company chairman. It is a key function of the chairman to represent
the shareholders’ interests in the company and Miss Hoiku has clearly failed in this duty.
A key reason for her poor performance was her reported inability or unwillingness to face up to Mr Smith who was clearly a
domineering personality. A key quality of a company chairman is his or her ability and willingness to personally challenge the
chief executive if necessary.
She failed to ensure that a committee structure was in place, allowing as she did, the remunerations committee to atrophy
when two members left the company.
Linked to this, it appears from the case that the two non-executive directors that left were not replaced and again, it is a part
of the chairman’s responsibility to ensure that an adequate number of non-executives are in place on the board.
She inexplicably allowed Mr Smith to design his own rewards package and presided over him reducing the performance
related element of his package which was clearly misaligned with the shareholders’ interests.
When Mr Smith failed to co-ordinate the other directors because of his unspecified business travel, she failed to hold him to
account thereby allowing the company’s strategy to fail.
There seems to have been some under-reporting of potential strategic problems in the most recent annual report. A ‘future
prospects’ or ‘continuing business’ statement is often a required disclosure in an annual report (in many countries) and there is evidence that this statement may have been missing or misleading in the most recent annual report.


(b) Explain the corporation tax and value added tax (VAT) implications of the following aspects of the proposed

restructuring of the Rapier Ltd group.

(i) The immediate tax implications of the restructuring. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The tax implications of the proposed restructuring of the Rapier Ltd group
(i) Immediate implications
Corporation tax
Rapier Ltd and its subsidiaries are in a capital gains group as Rapier Ltd owns at least 75% of the ordinary share capital
of each of the subsidiary companies. Any non-exempt items of plant and machinery owned by the subsidiaries will
therefore be transferred to Rapier Ltd at no gain, no loss.
No taxable credit or allowable debit will arise on the transfer of the subsidiaries’ goodwill to Rapier Ltd because the
companies are in a capital gains group.
The trading losses brought forward in Dirk Ltd will be transferred with the trade to Rapier Ltd as the effective ownership
of the three trades will not change (Rapier Ltd owns the subsidiaries which own the trades and, following the
restructuring, will own the three trades directly). The losses will be restricted to being offset against the future trading
profits of the Dirk trade only.
There will be no balancing adjustments in respect of the plant and machinery transferred to Rapier Ltd. Writing down
allowances will be claimed by the subsidiaries in respect of the year ending 30 June 2007 and by Rapier Ltd in respect
of future periods.
Value added tax (VAT)
No VAT should be charged on the sales of the businesses to Rapier Ltd as they are outside the scope of VAT. This is
because the trades are to be transferred as going concerns to a VAT registered person with no significant break in trading.
Switch Ltd must notify HM Revenue and Customs by 30 July 2007 that it has ceased to make taxable supplies.


(c) Assess the advantages and disadvantages to Datum Paper Products taking the greenfield option as opposed

to the acquisition of Papier Presse. (15 marks)

正确答案:
(c) From the information given in the scenario, DPP will face significant problems if it chooses to develop a greenfield site. The
bureaucratic planning procedures adopted by the host government can add considerable time to get an efficient plant up and
running. In some ways, such governments are in a dilemma, anxious to secure foreign direct investment, but at the same
time protect inefficient domestic manufacturers. Certainly, DPP in its own risk assessment would need to take political risk
into account. In assessing the risks of a greenfield site, Ken could use Porter’s ‘diamond’ to good effect. Factor conditions
might be seen as quite favourable, with an educated, trained, albeit low productivity, labour force. However, the lack of
demanding tough global customers, a weak and inefficient domestic industry to supply the new venture and competitors who
have been highly protected mean that DPP will have to battle to create a supportive and sustaining environment. Financial
exposure may be increased through currency risk.
Clearly, the fresh start will allow integrated information systems to be developed and the latest technology to be used.
However, the new capacity will have a significant impact on DPP’s existing plants. The extent to which expatriate
management is used is clearly an issue. The host government is likely to require some commitment to the training of local
management and the degree of autonomy given to the new plant may well be an issue. Cultural issues and sensitivities will
be significant – often shop floor workers and managers will be used to high levels of absenteeism being tolerated in
government owned and controlled firms. Also the issue of involvement and participation could be an issue – there may be a
marked reluctance on the shop floor to contribute ideas towards raising productivity and quality. DPP is part of a group that
has experience of operating abroad and there is a real need to access information on key problems in greenfield operations.
In many ways the move to a greenfield site links the macro environmental analysis generated by a SLEPT or PEST to five
forces industry analysis with its focus on customers, competitors and suppliers. Certainly, creating an integrated value chain
with DPP’s existing business will be a real challenge to the management. It also adds capacity to a European industry where
there is already a problem. Choosing between the two options to achieve the strategic goal of a lower cost base can be doneusing the tests of suitability, acceptability and feasibility. The decision will not be an easy one.


(ii) Analyse the effect of delaying the sale of the business of the Stiletto Partnership to Razor Ltd until

30 April 2007 on Clint’s income tax and national insurance position.

You are not required to prepare detailed calculations of his income tax or national insurance liabilities.

(4 marks)

正确答案:

(ii) The implications of delaying the sale of the business
The implications of delaying the sale of the business until 30 April would have been as follows:
– Clint would have received an additional two months of profits amounting to £6,920 (£20,760 x 1/3).
– Clint’s trading income in 2006/07 would have been reduced by £13,015 (£43,723 – £30,708), much of which
would have been subject to income tax at 40%. His additional trading income in 2007/08 of £19,935 would all
have been taxed at 10% and 22%.
– Clint is entitled to the personal age allowance of £7,280 in both years. However, it is abated by £1 for every £2
by which his total income exceeds £20,100. Once Clint’s total income exceeds £24,590 (£20,100 + ((£7,280
– £5,035) x 2)), his personal allowance will be reduced to the standard amount of £5,035. Accordingly, the
increased personal allowance would not be available in 2006/07 regardless of the year in which the business was
sold. It is available in 2007/08 (although part of it is wasted) but would not have been if the sale of the business
had been delayed.
– Clint’s class 4 national insurance contributions in 2006/07 would have been reduced due to the fall in the level
of his trading income. However, much of the saving would be at 1% only. Clint is not liable to class 4 national
insurance contributions in 2007/08 as he is 65 at the start of the year.
– Changing the date on which the business was sold would have had no effect on Clint’s class 2 liability as he is
not required to make class 2 contributions once he is 65 years old.


(b) State the immediate tax implications of the proposed gift of the share portfolio to Avril and identify an

alternative strategy that would achieve Crusoe’s objectives whilst avoiding a possible tax liability in the

future. State any deadline(s) in connection with your proposed strategy. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Gift of the share portfolio to Avril
Inheritance tax
The gift would be a potentially exempt transfer at market value. No inheritance tax would be due at the time of the gift.
Capital gains tax
The gift would be a disposal by Crusoe deemed to be made at market value for the purposes of capital gains tax. No gain
would arise as the deemed proceeds will equal Crusoe’s base cost of probate value.
Stamp duty
There is no stamp duty on a gift of shares for no consideration.
Strategy to avoid a possible tax liability in the future
Crusoe should enter into a deed of variation directing the administrators to transfer the shares to Avril rather than to him. This
will not be regarded as a gift by Crusoe. Instead, provided the deed states that it is intended to be effective for inheritance tax
purposes, it will be as if Noland had left the shares to Avril in a will.
This strategy is more tax efficient than Crusoe gifting the shares to Avril as such a gift would be a potentially exempt transfer
and inheritance tax may be due if Crusoe were to die within seven years.
The deed of variation must be entered into by 1 October 2009, i.e. within two years of the date of Noland’s death.


3 Assume that today’s date is 10 May 2005.

You have recently been approached by Fred Flop. Fred is the managing director and 100% shareholder of Flop

Limited, a UK trading company with one wholly owned subsidiary. Both companies have a 31 March year-end.

Fred informs you that he is experiencing problems in dealing with aspects of his company tax returns. The company

accountant has been unable to keep up to date with matters, and Fred also believes that mistakes have been made

in the past. Fred needs assistance and tells you the following:

Year ended 31 March 2003

The corporation tax return for this period was not submitted until 2 November 2004, and corporation tax of £123,500

was paid at the same time. Profits chargeable to corporation tax were stated as £704,300.

A formal notice (CT203) requiring the company to file a self-assessment corporation tax return (dated 1 February

2004) had been received by the company on 4 February 2004.

A detailed examination of the accounts and tax computation has revealed the following.

– Computer equipment totalling £50,000 had been expensed in the accounts. No adjustment has been made in

the tax computation.

– A provision of £10,000 was made for repairs, but there is no evidence of supporting information.

– Legal and professional fees totalling £46,500 were allowed in full without any explanation. Fred has

subsequently produced the following analysis:

Analysis of legal & professional fees

Legal fees on a failed attempt to secure a trading loan 15,000

Debt collection agency fees 12,800

Obtaining planning consent for building extension 15,700

Accountant’s fees for preparing accounts 14,000

Legal fees relating to a trade dispute 19,000

– No enquiry has yet been raised by the Inland Revenue.

– Flop Ltd was a large company in terms of the Companies Act definition for the year in question.

– Flop Ltd had taxable profits of £595,000 in the previous year.

Year ended 31 March 2004

The corporation tax return has not yet been submitted for this year. The accounts are late and nearing completion,

with only one change still to be made. A notice requiring the company to file a self-assessment corporation tax return

(CT203) dated 27 July 2004 was received on 1 August 2004. No corporation tax has yet been paid.

1 – The computation currently shows profits chargeable to corporation tax of £815,000 before accounting

adjustments, and any adjustments for prior years.

– A company owing Flop Ltd £50,000 (excluding VAT) has gone into liquidation, and it is unlikely that any of this

money will be paid. The money has been outstanding since 3 September 2003, and the bad debt will need to

be included in the accounts.

1 Fred also believes there are problems in relation to the company’s VAT administration. The VAT return for the quarter

ended 31 March 2005 was submitted on 5 May 2005, and VAT of £24,000 was paid at the same time. The previous

return to 31 December 2004 was also submitted late. In addition, no account has been made for the VAT on the bad

debt. The VAT return for 30 June 2005 may also be late. Fred estimates the VAT liability for that quarter to be £8,250.

Required:

(a) (i) Calculate the revised corporation tax (CT) payable for the accounting periods ending 31 March 2003

and 2004 respectively. Your answer should include an explanation of the adjustments made as a result

of the information which has now come to light. (7 marks)

(ii) State, giving reasons, the due payment date of the corporation tax (CT) and the filing date of the

corporation tax return for each period, and identify any interest and penalties which may have arisen to

date. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(a) Calculation of corporation tax
Year ended 31 March 2003
Corporation tax payable
There are three adjusting items:.
(i) The computers are capital items, as they have an enduring benefit. These need to be added back in the Schedule D
Case I calculation, and capital allowances claimed instead. The company is not small or medium by Companies Act
definitions and therefore no first year allowances are available. Allowances of £12,500 (50,000 x 25%) can be claimed,
leaving a TWDV of £37,500.
(ii) The provision appears to be general in nature. In addition there is insufficient information to justify the provision and it
should be disallowed until such times as it is released or utilised.
(iii) Costs relating to trading loan relationships are allowable, as are costs relating to the trade (debt collection, trade disputes
and accounting work). Costs relating to capital items (£5,700) are not allowable so will have to be added back.
Total profit chargeable to corporation tax is therefore £704,300 + 50,000 – 12,500 + 10,000 + 5,700 = 757,500. There are two associates, and therefore the 30% tax rate starts at £1,500,000/2 = £750,000. Corporation tax payable is 30% x£757,500 = £227,250.
Payment date
Although the rate of tax is 30% and the company ‘large’, quarterly payments will not apply, as the company was not large in the previous year. The due date for payment of tax is therefore nine months and one day after the end of the tax accounting period (31 March 2003) i.e. 1 January 2004.
Filing date
This is the later of:
– 12 months after the end of the period of account: 31 March 2004
– 3 months after the date of the notice requiring the return 1 May 2004
i.e. 1 May 2004.


This information was taken from an internal newsletter of The Knowledge Partnership LLP (TKP), a company which offers project and software consultancy work for clients based in Zeeland. The newsletter was dated 2 November 2014 and describes two projects currently being undertaken by the partnership.

Project One

In this project, one of our clients was just about to place a contract for a time recording system to help them monitor and estimate construction contracts when we were called in by the Finance Director. He was concerned about the company supplying the software package. ‘They only have an annual revenue of $5m’, he said, ‘and that worries me.’ TKP analysed software companies operating in Zeeland. It found that 200 software companies were registered in Zeeland with annual revenues of between $3m and $10m. Of these, 20 went out of business last year. This compared to a 1% failure rate for software companies with revenues of more than $100m per year. We presented this information to the client and suggested that this could cause a short-term support problem. The client immediately re-opened the procurement process. Eventually they bought a solution from a much larger well-known software supplier. It is a popular software solution, used in many larger companies.

The client has now asked us to help with the implementation of the package. A budget for the project has been agreed and has been documented in an agreed, signed-off, business case. The client has a policy of never re-visiting its business cases once they have been accepted; they see this as essential for effective cost control. We are currently working with the primary users of the software – account managers (using time and cost data to monitor contracts) and the project support office (using time and cost data to improve contract estimating) – to ensure that they can use the software effectively when it is implemented. We have also given ‘drop in’ briefing sessions for the client’s employees who are entering the time and cost data analysed by the software. They already record this information on a legacy system and so all they will see is a bright new user interface, but we need to keep them informed about our implementation. We are also looking at data migration from the current legacy system. We think some of the current data might be of poor quality, so we have established a strategy for data cleansing (through offshore data input) if this problem materialises. We currently estimate that the project will go live in May 2015.

Project Two

In this project, the client is the developer of the iProjector, a tiny phone-size projector which is portable, easy to use and offers high definition projection. The client was concerned that their product is completely dependent on a specialist image-enhancing chip designed and produced by a small start-up technology company. They asked TKP to investigate this company. We confirmed their fears. The company has been trading for less than three years and it has a very inexperienced management team. We suggested that the client should establish an escrow agreement for design details of the chip and suggested a suitable third party to hold this agreement. We also suggested that significant stocks of the chip should be maintained. The client also asked TKP to look at establishing patents for the iProjector throughout the world. Again, using our customer contacts, we put them in touch with a company which specialises in this. We are currently engaged with the client in examining the risk that a major telephone producer will launch a competitive product with functionality and features similar to the iProjector.

The iProjector is due to be launched on 1 May 2015 and we have been engaged to give advice on the launch of the product. The launch has been heavily publicised, a prestigious venue booked and over 400 attendees are expected. TKP have arranged for many newspaper journalists to attend. The product is not quite finished, so although orders will be taken at the launch, the product is not expected to ship until June 2015.

Further information:

TKP only undertakes projects in the business culture which it understands and where it feels comfortable. Consequently, it does not undertake assignments outside Zeeland.

TKP has $10,000,000 of consultant’s liability insurance underwritten by Zeeland Insurance Group (ZIG).

Required:

(a) Analyse how TKP itself and the two projects described in the scenario demonstrate the principles of effective risk management. (15 marks)

(b) Describe the principle of the triple constraint (scope, time and cost) on projects and discuss its implications in the two projects described in the scenario. (10 marks)

正确答案:

(a) The first stages of risk management are the identification, descriptions and assessment of the risk. This assessment is primarily concerned with the likelihood of them occurring and the severity of impact on the organisation or project should they occur. Sometimes the likelihood is a subjective probability, the opinions of experienced managers or experts in the field. On other occasions, there is some statistical evidence on which to base the assessment. For example, in project 1, TKP identified that 20 IT software companies with annual revenues between $3m and $10m went out of business last year. This represented 10% of the total number of software companies reporting such revenues. Its report to the client suggested that there was a 10% chance of the current preferred supplier (who had a turnover of $5m) ceasing business and this would have a significant short-term support implication. This compared to a business failure rate of 1% for software companies with an annual revenue exceeding $100m. The client felt that the probability of supplier failure was too high, so eventually bought a software solution from a much larger, well-known, software supplier. In this case, the likelihood of the risk led the client to changing its procurement decision. The risk itself does not go away, large companies also fail, but the probability of the risk occurring is reduced.

The avoidance (or prevention) of a risk is a legitimate risk response. In project 1, the client could avoid the risk ‘failure of the supplier’ by commissioning an in-house bespoke solution. Similarly, TKP itself avoids the risks associated with trading in different cultures, by restricting its projects to clients based in Zeeland.

There are three further responses to risks.

Risk mitigation (or risk contingency) actions are what the organisation will do to counter the risk, should the risk take place. Mitigation actions are designed to lessen the impact on the organisation of the risk occurring. In project 2, TKP recommends that the producers of the iProjector should establish an escrow agreement with the company which produces the chip which enhances the quality of the projected image. It was agreed that design details of this chip should be lodged with a third party who would make them available to the producers of the iProjector should the company which owned the enhanced image technology cease trading. This is a mitigation approach to the risk ‘failure of the supplier’. The supplier is relatively high risk (less than three years of trading, inexperienced management team), and the product (the iProjector) is completely dependent upon the supply of the image enhancing chip. The failure of the business supplying the chips would have significant impact on iProjector production. If the escrow agreement had to be enacted, then it would take the producers of the iProjector some time to establish alternative production. Consequently (and TKP have suggested this), it might be prudent to hold significant stocks of the chips to ensure continued production. In such circumstances, the need to mitigate risk is more important than implementing contemporary just-in-time supply practices. In some instances a mitigation action can be put in place immediately. In other instances risk mitigation actions are only enacted should the risk occur. The risk has been recognised and the organisation has a rehearsed or planned response. For example, in project 1, TKP has identified ‘poor quality of current data’ as a risk associated with the migration of data from the current systems to the proposed software package solution. It has established a strategy for data cleansing if that risk actually materialises. Importantly, the client knows in advance how to respond to a risk. It avoids making a hasty, ill-thought out response to an unforeseen event.

Risk transfer actions are concerned with transferring the risk and the assessment and consequences of that risk to another party. This can be done in a number of ways. TKP itself has liability insurance which potentially protects the company from the financial consequences of being sued by clients for giving poor advice. TKP has identified this as a risk, but is unlikely to be able to assess either the probability of that risk occurring or establishing meaningful mitigation measures to minimise the effect of that risk. Consequently, the responsibility for both of these is transferred to an insurance company. They establish the risk, through a series of questions, and compute a premium which reflects the risk and the compensation maximum which will have to be paid if that risk occurs. TKP pays the insurance premiums. TKP itself also transfers risks in project 2. It is unsure about how to establish patents and so it refers the client to another company. Transferring avoids the risk associated with ‘establishing the patent incorrectly’ and the financial consequences of this.

Finally, risk may be identified but just accepted as part of doing business. Risk acceptance is particularly appropriate when the probability of the risk is low or the impact of that risk is relatively insignificant. Risks may also be accepted when there are no realistic mitigation or transfer actions. In project 2, the producers of the iProjector are concerned that there is ‘a risk that a major telephone producer will launch a product with features and functionality similar to ours’. This is a risk, but there is little that can be done about it. Risks of competition are often best accepted.

The discussion above is primarily concerned with deciding what action to take for each risk. Once these actions are agreed, then a plan may be required to put them into place. For example, establishing an escrow agreement will require certain activities to be done.

Risks must also be monitored. For example, in project 2, the risk of supplier failure can be monitored through a company checking agency. Many of these companies offer a continuous monitoring service which evaluates financial results, share prices and other significant business movements. Reports are produced, highlighting factors which may be of particular concern. Risks will also disappear once certain stages of the project have been completed and, similarly, new ones will appear, often due to changes in the business environment. Many organisations use a risk register or risk log to document and monitor risks and such logs often specify a risk owner, a person responsible for adequate management of the risk.

(b) Every project is constrained in some way by its scope, time and cost. These limitations are often called the triple constraint. The scope concerns what has to be delivered by the project, time is when the project should deliver by, and cost is concerned with how much can be spent on achieving the deliverable (the budget). Quality is also an important feature of projects. Some authors include quality in their triple constraint (instead of scope), others add it as a further constraint (quadruple constraint), whilst others believe that quality considerations are inherent in setting the scope, time and cost goals of a project. How a particular project is managed depends greatly on the pressures in the triple constraint.

In project 1, the reluctance of the company to re-visit the business case means that the budget (or cost) of the solution is fixed. The implementation date might be desirable, but it does not seem to be business critical. It is an internal system and so any delays in implementation will not affect customers. It will also be a relatively seamless transition for most employees in the company. They already record the time record details which the new system will collect and so all they will see is a changed user interface. Only the direct users of the output (account managers and the project office) will be affected by any delay. The scope of the software package is also pre-defined. If it fails to meet requirements, then the users will have to adjust their expectations or business methods. There is no money to finance customisation or add-on systems, so in this sense the scope of the solution is also fixed. The quality of the software, in terms of its reliability and robustness, should also be good, as it is a popular software solution used in many large companies.

In project 2, the launch date is fixed. It has been heavily publicised, the venue is booked and over 400 attendees are expected, including newspaper journalists. Thus the time of the project is fixed. However, although orders will be taken at the launch, the product is not expected to ship until a month after launch. Thus the scope of the product shown at the launch date might be restricted and inherent quality problems might not yet be solved. Any defects can be explained away (this is a pre-production model) or, more effectively, they may be avoided by ensuring that the product is demonstrated to attendees, not used by them. The project manager must ensure that key functionality of the product is available on launch date (such as producing an image of a certain quality), but other functionality, not central to the presentation (for example, promised support for all image file formats) could be delayed until after the presentation. The company should make extra funds available to ensure that the launch date is successful.


Susan is aware of benchmarking as a useful input into performance measurement and strategic change.

(b) Assess the contribution benchmarking could make to improving the position of the Marlow Fashion Group

and any limitations to its usefulness. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(b) Benchmarking at Marlow Fashion will not be an easy exercise. Marlow Fashion has developed a distinctive way of reaching
its markets that means direct comparisons will be hard to make. Certainly, it can carry out historical benchmarking in
comparing how its own processes and activities have improved, or otherwise, over a relevant period of time. Unfortunately,
this is likely to simply confirm worsening performance. It can compare its own key operations against the ‘best in class’;
regardless of which industry the excellent performer comes from. It could and should have been carrying out competitive
benchmarking on the retail side of the business where information should be more easily available. There may be an
opportunity to benchmark itself against firms that have gone through a similar crisis and achieved a successful turnaround.

In terms of the advantages and disadvantages, the willingness of managers responsible for a key area of performance to
compare themselves against relevant external performance measures should make them take responsibility for any changes
necessary. In Marlow Fashion, the acceptance that things have to be done differently will be the first stage in the turnaround.
Getting managers face-to-face with the problems, accepting responsibility for change and recognising that the necessary
changes are ‘doable’ is an important stage in creating a willingness to change. The disadvantages are that every organisation
and situation is different and there is no one best way. Marlow Fashion thought it had discovered the best way and this created
an unwillingness to change. There is also the danger that you are solving today’s problems with yesterday’s solutions. A good
competitor will be trying to maintain its competitive advantage through constantly improving its processes. It also has a vested
interest in trying to prevent its improvements from being revealed to its competitors. Also, many of the ‘softer’ processes –
typically involving people – are difficult if not impossible to replicate in another organisation. These advantages are to do with
culture and leadership and not easily transferable to another organisation and the context in which it is operating.


2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第4章


3 On 1 January 2007 Dovedale Ltd, a company with no subsidiaries, intends to purchase 65% of the ordinary share

capital of Hira Ltd from Belgrove Ltd. Belgrove Ltd currently owns 100% of the share capital of Hira Ltd and has no

other subsidiaries. All three companies have their head offices in the UK and are UK resident.

Hira Ltd had trading losses brought forward, as at 1 April 2006, of £18,600 and no income or gains against which

to offset losses in the year ended 31 March 2006. In the year ending 31 March 2007 the company expects to make

further tax adjusted trading losses of £55,000 before deduction of capital allowances, and to have no other income

or gains. The tax written down value of Hira Ltd’s plant and machinery as at 31 March 2006 was £96,000 and

there will be no fixed asset additions or disposals in the year ending 31 March 2007. In the year ending 31 March

2008 a small tax adjusted trading loss is anticipated. Hira Ltd will surrender the maximum possible trading losses

to Belgrove Ltd and Dovedale Ltd.

The tax adjusted trading profit of Dovedale Ltd for the year ending 31 March 2007 is expected to be £875,000 and

to continue at this level in the future. The profits chargeable to corporation tax of Belgrove Ltd are expected to be

£38,000 for the year ending 31 March 2007 and to increase in the future.

On 1 February 2007 Dovedale Ltd will sell a small office building to Hira Ltd for its market value of £234,000.

Dovedale Ltd purchased the building in March 2005 for £210,000. In October 2004 Dovedale Ltd sold a factory

for £277,450 making a capital gain of £84,217. A claim was made to roll over the gain on the sale of the factory

against the acquisition cost of the office building.

On 1 April 2007 Dovedale Ltd intends to acquire the whole of the ordinary share capital of Atapo Inc, an unquoted

company resident in the country of Morovia. Atapo Inc sells components to Dovedale Ltd as well as to other

companies in Morovia and around the world.

It is estimated that Atapo Inc will make a profit before tax of £160,000 in the year ending 31 March 2008 and will

pay a dividend to Dovedale Ltd of £105,000. It can be assumed that Atapo Inc’s taxable profits are equal to its profit

before tax. The rate of corporation tax in Morovia is 9%. There is a withholding tax of 3% on dividends paid to

non-Morovian resident shareholders. There is no double tax agreement between the UK and Morovia.

Required:

(a) Advise Belgrove Ltd of any capital gains that may arise as a result of the sale of the shares in Hira Ltd. You

are not required to calculate any capital gains in this part of the question. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Capital gains that may arise on the sale by Belgrove Ltd of shares in Hira Ltd
Belgrove Ltd will realise a capital gain on the sale of the shares unless the substantial shareholding exemption applies. The
exemption will be given automatically provided all of the following conditions are satisfied.
– Belgrove Ltd has owned at least 10% of Hira Ltd for a minimum of 12 months during the two years prior to the sale.
– Belgrove Ltd is a trading company or a member of a trading group during that 12-month period and immediately after
the sale.
– Hira Ltd is a trading company or the holding company of a trading group during that 12-month period and immediately
after the sale.
Hira Ltd will no longer be in a capital gains group with Belgrove Ltd after the sale. Accordingly, a capital gain, known as a
degrouping charge, may arise in Hira Ltd. A degrouping charge will arise if, at the time it leaves the Belgrove Ltd group, Hira
Ltd owns any capital assets which were transferred to it at no gain, no loss within the previous six years by a member of the
Belgrove Ltd capital gains group.


In relation to the courts’ powers to interpret legislation, explain and differentiate between:

(a) the literal approach, including the golden rule; and (5 marks)

(b) the purposive approach, including the mischief rule. (5 marks)

正确答案:

Tutorial note:
In order to apply any piece of legislation, judges have to determine its meaning. In other words they are required to interpret the
statute before them in order to give it meaning. The diffi culty, however, is that the words in statutes do not speak for themselves and
interpretation is an active process, and at least potentially a subjective one depending on the situation of the person who is doing
the interpreting.
Judges have considerable power in deciding the actual meaning of statutes, especially when they are able to deploy a number of
competing, not to say contradictory, mechanisms for deciding the meaning of the statute before them. There are, essentially, two
contrasting views as to how judges should go about determining the meaning of a statute – the restrictive, literal approach and the
more permissive, purposive approach.
(a) The literal approach
The literal approach is dominant in the English legal system, although it is not without critics, and devices do exist for
circumventing it when it is seen as too restrictive. This view of judicial interpretation holds that the judge should look primarily
to the words of the legislation in order to construe its meaning and, except in the very limited circumstances considered below,
should not look outside of, or behind, the legislation in an attempt to fi nd its meaning.
Within the context of the literal approach there are two distinct rules:
(i) The literal rule
Under this rule, the judge is required to consider what the legislation actually says rather than considering what it might
mean. In order to achieve this end, the judge should give words in legislation their literal meaning, that is, their plain,
ordinary, everyday meaning, even if the effect of this is to produce what might be considered an otherwise unjust or
undesirable outcome (Fisher v Bell (1961)) in which the court chose to follow the contract law literal interpretation of
the meaning of offer in the Act in question and declined to consider the usual non-legal literal interpretation of the word
(offer).

(ii) The golden rule
This rule is applied in circumstances where the application of the literal rule is likely to result in what appears to the court
to be an obviously absurd result. It should be emphasised, however, that the court is not at liberty to ignore, or replace,
legislative provisions simply on the basis that it considers them absurd; it must fi nd genuine diffi culties before it declines
to use the literal rule in favour of the golden one. As examples, there may be two apparently contradictory meanings to a
particular word used in the statute, or the provision may simply be ambiguous in its effect. In such situations, the golden
rule operates to ensure that preference is given to the meaning that does not result in the provision being an absurdity.
Thus in Adler v George (1964) the defendant was found guilty, under the Offi cial Secrets Act 1920, with obstruction
‘in the vicinity’ of a prohibited area, although she had actually carried out the obstruction ‘inside’ the area.
(b) The purposive approach
The purposive approach rejects the limitation of the judges’ search for meaning to a literal construction of the words of
legislation itself. It suggests that the interpretative role of the judge should include, where necessary, the power to look beyond
the words of statute in pursuit of the reason for its enactment, and that meaning should be construed in the light of that purpose
and so as to give it effect. This purposive approach is typical of civil law systems. In these jurisdictions, legislation tends to set
out general principles and leaves the fi ne details to be fi lled in later by the judges who are expected to make decisions in the
furtherance of those general principles.
European Community (EC) legislation tends to be drafted in the continental manner. Its detailed effect, therefore, can only be
determined on the basis of a purposive approach to its interpretation. This requirement, however, runs counter to the literal
approach that is the dominant approach in the English system. The need to interpret such legislation, however, has forced
a change in that approach in relation to Community legislation and even with respect to domestic legislation designed to
implement Community legislation. Thus, in Pickstone v Freemans plc (1988), the House of Lords held that it was permissible,
and indeed necessary, for the court to read words into inadequate domestic legislation in order to give effect to Community
law in relation to provisions relating to equal pay for work of equal value. (For a similar approach, see also the House of Lords’
decision in Litster v Forth Dry Dock (1989) and the decision in Three Rivers DC v Bank of England (No 2) (1996).) However,
it has to recognise that the purposive rule is not particularly modern and has its precursor in a long established rule of statutory
interpretation, namely the mischief rule.

The mischief rule
This rule permits the court to go behind the actual wording of a statute in order to consider the problem that the statute is
supposed to remedy.
In its traditional expression it is limited by being restricted to using previous common law rules in order to decide the operation
of contemporary legislation. Thus in Heydon’s case (1584) it was stated that in making use of the mischief rule the court
should consider what the mischief in the law was which the common law did not adequately deal with and which statute law
had intervened to remedy. Use of the mischief rule may be seen in Corkery v Carpenter (1950), in which a man was found
guilty of being drunk in charge of a carriage although he was in fact only in charge of a bicycle.


(b) Router has a number of film studios and office buildings. The office buildings are in prestigious areas whereas

the film studios are located in ‘out of town’ locations. The management of Router wish to apply the ‘revaluation

model’ to the office buildings and the ‘cost model’ to the film studios in the year ended 31 May 2007. At present

both types of buildings are valued using the ‘revaluation model’. One of the film studios has been converted to a

theme park. In this case only, the land and buildings on the park are leased on a single lease from a third party.

The lease term was 30 years in 1990. The lease of the land and buildings was classified as a finance lease even

though the financial statements purport to comply with IAS 17 ‘Leases’.

The terms of the lease were changed on 31 May 2007. Router is now going to terminate the lease early in 2015

in exchange for a payment of $10 million on 31 May 2007 and a reduction in the monthly lease payments.

Router intends to move from the site in 2015. The revised lease terms have not resulted in a change of

classification of the lease in the financial statements of Router. (10 marks)

Required:

Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.

正确答案:
(b) IAS16 ‘Property, Plant and Equipment’ permits assets to be revalued on a class by class basis. The different characteristics
of the buildings allow them to be classified separately. Different measurement models can, therefore, be used for the office
buildings and the film studios. However, IAS8 ‘Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors’ says that
once an entity has decided on its accounting policies, it should apply them consistently from period to period and across all
relevant transactions. An entity can change its accounting policies but only in specific circumstances. These circumstances
are:
(a) where there is a new accounting standard or interpretation or changes to an accounting standard
(b) where the change results in the financial statements providing reliable and more relevant information about the effects
of transactions, other events or conditions on the entity’s financial position, financial performance, or cash flows
Voluntary changes in accounting policies are quite uncommon but may occur when an accounting policy is no longer
appropriate. Router will have to ensure that the change in accounting policy meets the criteria in IAS8. Additionally,
depreciated historical cost will have to be calculated for the film studios at the commencement of the period and the opening
balance on the revaluation reserve and any other affected component of equity adjusted. The comparative amounts for each
prior period should be presented as if the new accounting policy had always been applied. There are limits on retrospective
application on the grounds of impracticability.
It is surprising that the lease of the land is considered to be a finance lease under IAS17 ‘Leases’. Land is considered to have
an indefinite life and should, therefore normally be classified as an operating lease unless ownership passes to the lessee
during the lease term. The lease of the land should be separated out from the lease and treated individually. The value of the
land so determined would be taken off the balance sheet in terms of the liability and asset and the lease payments treated
as rentals in the income statement. A prior period adjustment should also be made. The buildings would continue to be
treated as property, plant and equipment (PPE) and the carrying amount not adjusted. However, the remaining useful life of
the building should be revised to reflect the shorter lease term. This will result in the carrying amount being depreciated over
the shorter period. This change to the depreciation policy is applied prospectively not retrospectively.
The lease liability must be assessed for derecognition under IAS39 ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’,
because of the revision of the lease terms, in order to determine whether the new terms are substantially different from the
old. The purpose of this is to determine whether the change in terms is a modification or an extinguishment. The change
seems to constitute a ‘modification’ because there is little change to the terms. The lease liability is, therefore, amended by
deducting the one off payment ($10 million) from the carrying amount (after adjustment for the lease of land) together with
any transaction costs. The lease liability is then remeasured to the present value of the revised future cash flows, discounted
using the original effective interest rate. Any adjustment made in remeasuring the lease liability will be taken to the income
statement.


In January 2008 Arti entered in a contractual agreement with Bee Ltd to write a study manual for an international accountancy body’s award. The manual was to cover the period from September 2008 till June 2009, and it was a term of the contract that the text be supplied by 30 June 2008 so that it could be printed in time for September. By 30 May, Arti had not yet started on the text and indeed he had written to Bee Ltd stating that he was too busy to write the text.

Bee Ltd was extremely perturbed by the news, especially as it had acquired the contract to supply all of the

accountancy body’s study manuals and had already incurred extensive preliminary expenses in relation to the publication of the new manual.

Required:

In the context of the law of contract, advise Bee Ltd whether they can take any action against Arti.

(10 marks)

正确答案:

The essential issues to be disentangled from the problem scenario relate to breach of contract and the remedies available for such breach.
There seems to be no doubt that there is a contractual agreement between Arti and Bee Ltd. Normally breach of a contract occurs where one of the parties to the agreement fails to comply, either completely or satisfactorily, with their obligations under it. However, such a definition does not appear to apply in this case as the time has not yet come when Arti has to produce the text. He has merely indicated that he has no intention of doing so. This is an example of the operation of the doctrine of anticipatory breach.
This arises precisely where one party, prior to the actual due date of performance, demonstrates an intention not to perform. their contractual obligations. The intention not to fulfil the contract can be either express or implied.
Express anticipatory breach occurs where a party actually states that they will not perform. their contractual obligations (Hochster v De La Tour (1853)). Implied anticipatory breach occurs where a party carries out some act which makes performance impossible
Omnium Enterprises v Sutherland (1919)).
When anticipatory breach takes place the innocent party can sue for damages immediately on receipt of the notification of the other party’s intention to repudiate the contract, without waiting for the actual contractual date of performance as in Hochster v De La Tour. Alternatively, they can wait until the actual time for performance before taking action. In the latter instance, they are entitled to make preparations for performance, and claim the agreed contract price (White and Carter (Councils) v McGregor (1961)).
It would appear that Arti’s action is clearly an instance of express anticipatory breach and that Bee Ltd has the right either to accept the repudiation immediately or affirm the contract and take action against Arti at the time for performance (Vitol SA v Norelf Ltd (1996)). In any event Arti is bound to complete his contractual promise or suffer the consequences of his breach of contract.
Remedies for breach of contract

(i) Specific performance It will sometimes suit a party to break their contractual obligations, even if they have to pay damages. In such circumstances the court can make an order for specific performance to require the party in breach to complete their part of the contract. However, as specific performance is not available in respect of contracts of employment or personal service Arti cannot be legally required to write the book for Bee Ltd (Ryan v Mutual Tontine Westminster Chambers Association (1893)). This means that the only remedy against Arti lies in the award of damages.
(ii) Damages A breach of contract will result in the innocent party being able to sue for damages.
Bee Ltd, therefore, can sue Bob for damages, but the important issue relates to the extent of such damages.
The estimation of what damages are to be paid by a party in breach of contract can be divided into two parts: remoteness and measure.
Remoteness of damage
The rule in Hadley v Baxendale (1845) states that damages will only be awarded in respect of losses which arise naturally, or which both parties may reasonably be supposed to have contemplated when the contract was made, as a probable result of its breach.

The effect of the first part of the rule in Hadley v Baxendale is that the party in breach is deemed to expect the normal consequences of the breach, whether they actually expected them or not. Under the second part of the rule, however, the party in breach can only be held liable for abnormal consequences where they have actual knowledge that the abnormal consequences might follow (Victoria Laundry Ltd v Newham Industries Ltd (1949)).

Measure of damages
Damages in contract are intended to compensate an injured party for any financial loss sustained as a consequence of another party’s breach. The object is not to punish the party in breach, so the amount of damages awarded can never be greater than the actual loss suffered. The aim is to put the injured party in the same position they would have been in had the contract been properly performed. In order to achieve this end the claimant is placed under a duty to mitigate losses. This means that the injured party has to take all reasonable steps to minimise their loss (Payzu v Saunders (1919)). Although such a duty did not appear to apply in relation to anticipatory breach as decided in White and Carter (Councils) v McGregor (1961)(above).
Applying these rules to the fact situation in the problem it is evident that as Arti has effected an anticipatory breach of his contract with Bee Ltd he will be liable to them for damages suffered as a consequence, if indeed they suffer damage as a result of his breach. As Bee Ltd will be under a duty to mitigate their losses, they will have to commit their best endeavours to find someone else to produce the required text on time. If they can do so at no further cost then they would suffer no loss, but any additional costs in producing the text will have to be borne by Arti.
However, if Bee Ltd is unable to produce the required text on time the situation becomes more complicated.
(i) As regards the profits from the contract to supply the accountancy body with all its text, the issue would be as to whether this was normal profit or amounted to an unexpected gain, as it was not part of Bee Ltd’s normal market when the contract was signed. If Victoria Laundry Ltd v Newham Industries Ltd were to be applied it is unlikely that Bee Ltd would be able to claim that loss of profit from Arti. However, it is equally plausible that the contract was an ordinary commercial one and that Arti would have to recompense Bee Ltd for any losses suffered from its failure to complete contractual performance.
(ii) As for the extensive preliminary expenses Arti would certainly be liable for them, as long as they were in the ordinary course of Bee Ltd’s business and were not excessive (Anglia Television v Reed (1972)).


(c) Describe the main stages of a formal grievance procedure that Oliver should now pursue. (10 marks)

正确答案:
Part (c):
Grievance procedures must be accessible to all employees of Hoopers and Henderson at any level of the organisation and
regardless of their status. Managers must have suitable training in procedures and be provided with background as to how
grievances can occur in the first place. Grievance procedures must be regarded as beneficial and not threatening.
If an employee has a grievance, he or she should be able to pursue it and have the problem which has led to the grievance resolved.
A formal grievance procedure must be available, set out in writing and accessible to all employees. The procedure should consist
of five formal stages.
The first stage states the grade of employee or employees and their rights for each type of grievance.
The second stage details the actual procedures for pursuing a grievance, and is in four parts:
– The employee must discuss the grievance with his or her immediate supervisor or line manager.
– If the grievance can not be resolved at the first level, then the employee’s manager must become involved.
– The interview between the employee and manager takes place with the employee being allowed a representative if desired.
– If the grievance remains unresolved then the matter must be referred to a higher manager.
The third stage (referral to a higher manager) requires that the Human Resources Department or, in the case of Hoopers and
Henderson the partner responsible, must be informed.
The fourth stage is that written records must be kept and be available to all employees.
Finally, the procedure must be time limited.
Allowance must be made for the involvement of a trade union, staff association or individual support (if desired) at an appropriate
stage in the procedure.
At Hoopers and Henderson, Oliver has attempted to discuss the issue with his immediate manager (David Morgan) but without
success. He has therefore followed the procedure, but to continue correctly, Oliver must have taken up his grievance with the
manager next in seniority to David Morgan, who in this case is the partner responsible for human resources.


(ii) The sales director has suggested to Damian, that to encourage the salesmen to accept the new arrangement,

the company should increase the value of the accessories of their own choice that can be fitted to the low

emission cars.

State, giving reasons, whether or not Damian should implement the sales director’s suggestion.

(2 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Damian should not agree to the sales director’s suggestion. The salesmen will each make a significant annual income
tax saving under the proposal, whereas the company will also be offset (at least partly) by the reduction in the dealer’s
bulk discount. Further, 100% first year allowance tax incentive for low emission cars is not guaranteed beyond 31 March
2008, and it is unlikely that any change in policy with regards to the provision of additional accessories will, once
implemented, be easily reversible.


3 Johan, a public limited company, operates in the telecommunications industry. The industry is capital intensive with

heavy investment in licences and network infrastructure. Competition in the sector is fierce and technological

advances are a characteristic of the industry. Johan has responded to these factors by offering incentives to customers

and, in an attempt to acquire and retain them, Johan purchased a telecom licence on 1 December 2006 for

$120 million. The licence has a term of six years and cannot be used until the network assets and infrastructure are

ready for use. The related network assets and infrastructure became ready for use on 1 December 2007. Johan could

not operate in the country without the licence and is not permitted to sell the licence. Johan expects its subscriber

base to grow over the period of the licence but is disappointed with its market share for the year to 30 November

2008. The licence agreement does not deal with the renewal of the licence but there is an expectation that the

regulator will grant a single renewal for the same period of time as long as certain criteria regarding network build

quality and service quality are met. Johan has no experience of the charge that will be made by the regulator for the

renewal but other licences have been renewed at a nominal cost. The licence is currently stated at its original cost of

$120 million in the statement of financial position under non-current assets.

Johan is considering extending its network and has carried out a feasibility study during the year to 30 November

2008. The design and planning department of Johan identified five possible geographical areas for the extension of

its network. The internal costs of this study were $150,000 and the external costs were $100,000 during the year

to 30 November 2008. Following the feasibility study, Johan chose a geographical area where it was going to install

a base station for the telephone network. The location of the base station was dependent upon getting planning

permission. A further independent study has been carried out by third party consultants in an attempt to provide a

preferred location in the area, as there is a need for the optimal operation of the network in terms of signal quality

and coverage. Johan proposes to build a base station on the recommended site on which planning permission has

been obtained. The third party consultants have charged $50,000 for the study. Additionally Johan has paid

$300,000 as a single payment together with $60,000 a month to the government of the region for access to the land

upon which the base station will be situated. The contract with the government is for a period of 12 years and

commenced on 1 November 2008. There is no right of renewal of the contract and legal title to the land remains with

the government.

Johan purchases telephone handsets from a manufacturer for $200 each, and sells the handsets direct to customers

for $150 if they purchase call credit (call card) in advance on what is called a prepaid phone. The costs of selling the

handset are estimated at $1 per set. The customers using a prepaid phone pay $21 for each call card at the purchase

date. Call cards expire six months from the date of first sale. There is an average unused call credit of $3 per card

after six months and the card is activated when sold.

Johan also sells handsets to dealers for $150 and invoices the dealers for those handsets. The dealer can return the

handset up to a service contract being signed by a customer. When the customer signs a service contract, the

customer receives the handset free of charge. Johan allows the dealer a commission of $280 on the connection of a

customer and the transaction with the dealer is settled net by a payment of $130 by Johan to the dealer being the

cost of the handset to the dealer ($150) deducted from the commission ($280). The handset cannot be sold

separately by the dealer and the service contract lasts for a 12 month period. Dealers do not sell prepaid phones, and

Johan receives monthly revenue from the service contract.

The chief operating officer, a non-accountant, has asked for an explanation of the accounting principles and practices

which should be used to account for the above events.

Required:

Discuss the principles and practices which should be used in the financial year to 30 November 2008 to account

for:

(a) the licences; (8 marks)

正确答案:
Licences
An intangible asset meets the identifiability criterion when it is separable or it arises from contractual or other legal rights (IAS38
‘Intangible Assets’). Additionally intangible assets are recognised where it is probable that the future economic benefits attributable
to the asset will flow to the entity and the asset’s cost can be reliably measured. Where intangible assets are acquired separately,
the asset’s cost or fair value reflects the estimations of the future economic benefits that are expected to flow to the entity. The
licence will, therefore, meet the above criteria for recognition as an intangible asset at cost. Subsequent to initial recognition,
IAS38 permits an entity to adopt the cost or revaluation model as its accounting policy. The revaluation model can only be adopted
if intangible assets are traded in an active market. As the licence cannot be sold, the revaluation model cannot be used.
The cost model requires intangible assets to be carried at cost less amortisation and impairment losses (IAS38, para 74).
Amortisation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an intangible asset over its useful life. The depreciable
amount is the asset’s cost less its residual value. The licence will have no residual value. The depreciable amount should be
allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life. The method of amortisation should reflect the pattern in which the asset’s
economic benefits are expected to be consumed. If that pattern cannot be determined reliably, the straight line method of
amortisation must be used. The licence does not suffer wear and tear from usage, that is the number of customers using the
service. The economic benefits of the licence relate to Johan’s ability to benefit from the use of the licence. The economic benefits
relates to the passage of time and the useful life of the licence is now shorter. Therefore, the asset depletes on a time basis and
the straight line basis is appropriate. The licence should be amortised from the date that the network is available for use; that is
from 1 December 2007. An impairment review should have been undertaken at 30 November 2007 when the licence was not
being amortised. Although the licence is capable of being used on the date it was purchased, it cannot be used until the associated
network assets and infrastructure are available for use. Johan expects the regulator to renew the licence at the end of the initial
term and thus consideration should be given to amortising the licence over the two licence periods, i.e. a period of 11 years (five
years and six years) as the licence could be renewed at a nominal cost. However, Johan has no real experience of renewing licences
and cannot reliably determine what amounts, if any, would be payable to the regulator. Therefore, the licence should be amortised
over a five year period, that is $24 million per annum.
There are indications that the value of the licence may be impaired. The market share for the year to 30 November 2008 is
disappointing and competition is fierce in the sector, and retention of customers difficult. Therefore, an impairment test should be
undertaken. Johan should classify the licence and network assets as a single cash generating unit (CGU) for impairment purposes.
The licence cannot generate revenue in its own right and the smallest group of assets that generates independent revenue will be
the licence and network assets. The impairment indicators point to the need to test this cash generating unit for impairment.


(b) The chief executive of Xalam Co, an exporter of specialist equipment, has asked for advice on the accounting

treatment and disclosure of payments made for security consultancy services. The payments, which aim to

ensure that consignments are not impounded in the destination country of a major customer, may be material to

the financial statements for the year ending 30 June 2006. Xalam does not treat these payments as tax

deductible. (4 marks)

Required:

Identify and comment on the ethical and other professional issues raised by each of these matters and state what

action, if any, Dedza should now take.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three situations.

正确答案:
(b) Advice on payments
■ As compared with (a) there is no obvious tax issue. Xalam is not overstating expenditure for tax purposes.
■ The payments being made for security consultancy services amount to a bribe. Corruption and bribery (and extortion)
are designated categories of money laundering offence under ‘The Forty Recommendations’ of the Financial Action Task
Force on Money Laundering (FATF).
■ Xalam clearly benefits from the payments as it receives income from the contract with the major customer. This is
criminal property and possession of it is a money laundering offence.
■ Dedza should consider the seriousness of the disclosure made by the chief executive in the context of domestic law.
■ Dedza should consider its knowledge of import duties etc in the destination country before recommending a course of
action to Xalam.
■ Dedza may be guilty of a money laundering offence if the matter is not reported. If a report to the FIU is considered
necessary then Dedza should encourage Xalam to make voluntary disclosure. If Xalam does not, Dedza will not be in
breach of client confidentiality for reporting knowledge of a suspicious transaction.
Tutorial note: Making a report takes precedence over client confidentiality.


Which of the following statements relating to internal and external auditors is correct?

A.Internal auditors are required to be members of a professional body

B.Internal auditors’ scope of work should be determined by those charged with governance

C.External auditors report to those charged with governance

D.Internal auditors can never be independent of the company

正确答案:B

A is incorrect as internal auditors are not required to be members of any professional body. C is incorrect as external auditors report to shareholders rather than those charged with governance. D is incorrect as internal auditors can be independent of the company, if, for example, the internal audit function has been outsourced.


2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第5章


(b) How can Maslow’s theory be applied to the motivation of staff? (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) This theory is based on the idea that the goals of the individual and the organisation can be integrated and that personal satisfaction can be achieved through the workplace. It also assumes that individuals will achieve self-actualisation through their role in assisting the organisation to achieve its objectives. It follows therefore that work is the principal source of satisfaction.
The theory’s practical application is that managers should recognise that subordinates’ needs are always evolving and increasing, so continued attention to increasing the employees’ personal development, opportunities for advancement and recognition of achievement are essential to keep them motivated.


For this part, assume today’s date is 15 August 2005.

5 (a) Donald is aged 22, single, and about to finish his university education. He has plans to start up a business selling

computer games, and intends to start trading on 1 April 2006, making up accounts to 31 March annually.

He believes that his business will generate cash (equal to taxable profits) of £47,500 in the first year. He

originally intended to operate as a sole trader, but he has recently discovered that as an alternative, he could

operate through a company. He has been advised that if this is the case, he can take a maximum gross salary

of £42,648 out of the company.

Required:

(i) Advise Donald on the income tax (IT), national insurance (NIC) and corporation tax (CT) liabilities he

will incur for the year ended 31 March 2007 trading under each of the two alternative business

structures (sole trade/company). Your advice should be supported by calculations of disposable income

for both alternatives assuming that in the company case, he draws the maximum salary stated.

(7 marks)

正确答案:

 


3 On 1 January 2007 Dovedale Ltd, a company with no subsidiaries, intends to purchase 65% of the ordinary share

capital of Hira Ltd from Belgrove Ltd. Belgrove Ltd currently owns 100% of the share capital of Hira Ltd and has no

other subsidiaries. All three companies have their head offices in the UK and are UK resident.

Hira Ltd had trading losses brought forward, as at 1 April 2006, of £18,600 and no income or gains against which

to offset losses in the year ended 31 March 2006. In the year ending 31 March 2007 the company expects to make

further tax adjusted trading losses of £55,000 before deduction of capital allowances, and to have no other income

or gains. The tax written down value of Hira Ltd’s plant and machinery as at 31 March 2006 was £96,000 and

there will be no fixed asset additions or disposals in the year ending 31 March 2007. In the year ending 31 March

2008 a small tax adjusted trading loss is anticipated. Hira Ltd will surrender the maximum possible trading losses

to Belgrove Ltd and Dovedale Ltd.

The tax adjusted trading profit of Dovedale Ltd for the year ending 31 March 2007 is expected to be £875,000 and

to continue at this level in the future. The profits chargeable to corporation tax of Belgrove Ltd are expected to be

£38,000 for the year ending 31 March 2007 and to increase in the future.

On 1 February 2007 Dovedale Ltd will sell a small office building to Hira Ltd for its market value of £234,000.

Dovedale Ltd purchased the building in March 2005 for £210,000. In October 2004 Dovedale Ltd sold a factory

for £277,450 making a capital gain of £84,217. A claim was made to roll over the gain on the sale of the factory

against the acquisition cost of the office building.

On 1 April 2007 Dovedale Ltd intends to acquire the whole of the ordinary share capital of Atapo Inc, an unquoted

company resident in the country of Morovia. Atapo Inc sells components to Dovedale Ltd as well as to other

companies in Morovia and around the world.

It is estimated that Atapo Inc will make a profit before tax of £160,000 in the year ending 31 March 2008 and will

pay a dividend to Dovedale Ltd of £105,000. It can be assumed that Atapo Inc’s taxable profits are equal to its profit

before tax. The rate of corporation tax in Morovia is 9%. There is a withholding tax of 3% on dividends paid to

non-Morovian resident shareholders. There is no double tax agreement between the UK and Morovia.

Required:

(a) Advise Belgrove Ltd of any capital gains that may arise as a result of the sale of the shares in Hira Ltd. You

are not required to calculate any capital gains in this part of the question. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Capital gains that may arise on the sale by Belgrove Ltd of shares in Hira Ltd
Belgrove Ltd will realise a capital gain on the sale of the shares unless the substantial shareholding exemption applies. The
exemption will be given automatically provided all of the following conditions are satisfied.
– Belgrove Ltd has owned at least 10% of Hira Ltd for a minimum of 12 months during the two years prior to the sale.
– Belgrove Ltd is a trading company or a member of a trading group during that 12-month period and immediately after
the sale.
– Hira Ltd is a trading company or the holding company of a trading group during that 12-month period and immediately
after the sale.
Hira Ltd will no longer be in a capital gains group with Belgrove Ltd after the sale. Accordingly, a capital gain, known as a
degrouping charge, may arise in Hira Ltd. A degrouping charge will arise if, at the time it leaves the Belgrove Ltd group, Hira
Ltd owns any capital assets which were transferred to it at no gain, no loss within the previous six years by a member of the
Belgrove Ltd capital gains group.


(b) The directors of Carver Ltd are aware that some of the company’s shareholders want to realise the value in their

shares immediately. Accordingly, instead of investing in the office building or the share portfolio they are

considering two alternative strategies whereby, following the sale of the company’s business, a payment will be

made to the company’s shareholders.

(i) Liquidate the company. The payment by the liquidator would be £126 per share.

(ii) The payment of a dividend of £125 per share following which a liquidator will be appointed. The payment

by the liquidator to the shareholders would then be £1 per share.

The company originally issued 20,000 £1 ordinary shares at par value to 19 members of the Cutler family.

Following a number of gifts and inheritances there are now 41 shareholders, all of whom are family members.

The directors have asked you to attend a meeting to set out the tax implications of these two alternative strategies

for each of the two main groups of shareholders: adults with shareholdings of more than 500 shares and children

with shareholdings of 200 shares or less.

Required:

Prepare notes explaining:

– the amount chargeable to tax; and

– the rates of tax that will apply

in respect of each of the two strategies for each of the two groups of shareholders ready for your meeting

with the directors of Carver Ltd. You should assume that none of the shareholders will have any capital

losses either in the tax year 2007/08 or brought forward as at 5 April 2007. (10 marks)

Note:

You should assume that the rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 will continue to apply for the

foreseeable future.

正确答案:

 


(c) At 1 June 2006, Router held a 25% shareholding in a film distribution company, Wireless, a public limited

company. On 1 January 2007, Router sold a 15% holding in Wireless thus reducing its investment to a 10%

holding. Router no longer exercises significant influence over Wireless. Before the sale of the shares the net asset

value of Wireless on 1 January 2007 was $200 million and goodwill relating to the acquisition of Wireless was

$5 million. Router received $40 million for its sale of the 15% holding in Wireless. At 1 January 2007, the fair

value of the remaining investment in Wireless was $23 million and at 31 May 2007 the fair value was

$26 million. (6 marks)

Required:

Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.Required:

Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.

正确答案:
(c) The investment in Wireless is currently accounted for using the equity method of accounting under IAS28 ‘Investments in
Associates’. On the sale of a 15% holding, the investment in Wireless will be accounted for in accordance with IAS39. Router
should recognise a gain on the sale of the holding in Wireless of $7 million (Working 1). The gain comprises the following:
(i) the difference between the sale proceeds and the proportion of the net assets sold and
(ii) the goodwill disposed of.
The total gain is shown in the income statement.
The remaining 10 per cent investment will be classified as an ‘available for sale’ financial asset or at ‘fair value through profit
or loss’ financial asset. Changes in fair value for these categories are reported in equity or in the income statement respectively.
At 1 January 2007, the investment will be recorded at fair value and a gain of $1 million $(23 – 22) recorded. At 31 May
2007 a further gain of $(26 – 23) million, i.e. $3 million will be recorded. In order for the investment to be categorised as
at fair value through profit or loss, certain conditions have to be fulfilled. An entity may use this designation when doing so
results in more relevant information by eliminating or significantly reducing a measurement or recognition inconsistency (an
‘accounting mismatch’) or where a group of financial assets and/or financial liabilities is managed and its performance is
evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy, and information
about the assets and/ or liabilities is provided internally to the entity’s key management personnel.


(b) (i) Advise Alasdair of the tax implications and relative financial risks attached to the following property

investments:

(1) buy to let residential property;

(2) commercial property; and

(3) shares in a property investment company/unit trust. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Income tax:
Direct investment in residential or commercial property
The income will be taxed under Schedule A for both residential and commercial property investment. Expenses can be
offset against income under the normal trading rules. These will include interest charges incurred in borrowing funds to
acquire the properties. Schedule A losses are restricted to use against future Schedule A profits, with the earliest profits
being relieved first.
When acquiring commercial properties, it may be possible to claim capital allowances on the fixtures and plant held in
the building. In addition, industrial buildings allowances (IBA) may also be available if the property qualifies as an
industrial building.
Capital allowances are not normally available for fixtures and fittings included in a residential property. Instead, a wear
and tear allowance can be claimed if the property is furnished. This is equal to 10% of the rental income after any
tenants cost (for example, council tax) paid by the landlord.
Income tax is levied at the normal tax rates (10/22/40%) as appropriate.
Collective investment (shares in a property investment company/unit trust)
With collective investments, the investor either buys shares (in an investment company) or units (in an equity unit trust).
The income tax treatment of both is the same in that the investor receives dividends. These are taxed at 10% and 32·5%
respectively (for basic and higher rate taxpayers).
Investors are not able to claim income tax relief on either interest costs (of borrowing) or any other expenses.
Capital gains tax (CGT):
The normal rules apply for CGT purposes in all situations. Property investments do not normally qualify for business
rates of taper relief unless they are furnished holiday lets or in certain circumstances, commercial property. Investments
in unit trusts or property investment companies will never qualify for business taper rates.
It is possible to use an individual savings account (ISA) to make collective investments. If this is done, income and
capital gains will be exempt from tax.
Other taxes:
New commercial property is subject to value added tax (VAT) at the standard rate, but new residential property is subject
to VAT at the zero rate. If a commercial building is acquired second hand as an investment, VAT may be payable if a
previous owner has opted to tax the property. If this is the case, VAT at the standard rate will be payable on the purchase
price, and rental charges to tenants will also be subject to VAT, again at the standard rate.
The acquisition of shares is not subject ot VAT.
Stamp duty land tax (SDLT) will be payable broadly on the direct acquisition of any property. The rates vary from 0 to
4% depending on the value of the land and building and its nature (whether residential or non-residential). Stamp duty
is payable at a rate of 0·5% on the acquisition of shares.
Investment risks/benefits
Direct investment
Investing directly in property represents a long term investment, and unless this is the case, investment risks are high.
Substantial initial costs (such as SDLT, VAT and transactions costs) are incurred, and ongoing running costs (such as
letting agents’ fees and vacant periods) can be significant. The investments are illiquid, particularly commercial
properties which can take months to sell.
All types of properties are dependent on a cyclical market, and the values of property investments can vary significantly
as a result. However, residential property has (on a long term basis) proven to be a good hedge against inflation.
Collective investments
The nature of collective investments is that the investor’s risk is reduced by the investment being spread over a large
portfolio as opposed to one or a few properties. In addition, investors can take advantage of the higher levels of liquidity
afforded by such vehicles.


The following trial balance relates to Sandown at 30 September 2009:

The following notes are relevant:

(i) Sandown’s revenue includes $16 million for goods sold to Pending on 1 October 2008. The terms of the sale are that Sandown will incur ongoing service and support costs of $1·2 million per annum for three years after the sale. Sandown normally makes a gross profit of 40% on such servicing and support work. Ignore the time value of money.

(ii) Administrative expenses include an equity dividend of 4·8 cents per share paid during the year.

(iii) The 5% convertible loan note was issued for proceeds of $20 million on 1 October 2007. It has an effective interest rate of 8% due to the value of its conversion option.

(iv) During the year Sandown sold an available-for-sale investment for $11 million. At the date of sale it had a

carrying amount of $8·8 million and had originally cost $7 million. Sandown has recorded the disposal of the

investment. The remaining available-for-sale investments (the $26·5 million in the trial balance) have a fair value of $29 million at 30 September 2009. The other reserve in the trial balance represents the net increase in the value of the available-for-sale investments as at 1 October 2008. Ignore deferred tax on these transactions.

(v) The balance on current tax represents the under/over provision of the tax liability for the year ended 30 September 2008. The directors have estimated the provision for income tax for the year ended 30 September 2009 at $16·2 million. At 30 September 2009 the carrying amounts of Sandown’s net assets were $13 million in excess of their tax base. The income tax rate of Sandown is 30%.

(vi) Non-current assets:

The freehold property has a land element of $13 million. The building element is being depreciated on a

straight-line basis.

Plant and equipment is depreciated at 40% per annum using the reducing balance method.

Sandown’s brand in the trial balance relates to a product line that received bad publicity during the year which led to falling sales revenues. An impairment review was conducted on 1 April 2009 which concluded that, based on estimated future sales, the brand had a value in use of $12 million and a remaining life of only three years.

However, on the same date as the impairment review, Sandown received an offer to purchase the brand for

$15 million. Prior to the impairment review, it was being depreciated using the straight-line method over a

10-year life.

No depreciation/amortisation has yet been charged on any non-current asset for the year ended 30 September

2009. Depreciation, amortisation and impairment charges are all charged to cost of sales.

Required:

(a) Prepare the statement of comprehensive income for Sandown for the year ended 30 September 2009.

(13 marks)

(b) Prepare the statement of financial position of Sandown as at 30 September 2009. (12 marks)

Notes to the financial statements are not required.

A statement of changes in equity is not required.

正确答案:
(i)IAS18Revenuerequiresthatwheresalesrevenueincludesanamountforaftersalesservicingandsupportcoststhenaproportionoftherevenueshouldbedeferred.Theamountdeferredshouldcoverthecostandareasonableprofit(inthiscaseagrossprofitof40%)ontheservices.Astheservicingandsupportisforthreeyearsandthedateofthesalewas1October2008,revenuerelatingtotwoyears’servicingandsupportprovisionmustbedeferred:($1·2millionx2/0·6)=$4million.Thisisshownas$2millioninbothcurrentandnon-currentliabilities.


(b) You are the manager responsible for the audit of Poppy Co, a manufacturing company with a year ended

31 October 2008. In the last year, several investment properties have been purchased to utilise surplus funds

and to provide rental income. The properties have been revalued at the year end in accordance with IAS 40

Investment Property, they are recognised on the statement of financial position at a fair value of $8 million, and

the total assets of Poppy Co are $160 million at 31 October 2008. An external valuer has been used to provide

the fair value for each property.

Required:

(i) Recommend the enquiries to be made in respect of the external valuer, before placing any reliance on their

work, and explain the reason for the enquiries; (7 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Enquiries in respect of the external valuer
Enquiries would need to be made for two main reasons, firstly to determine the competence, and secondly the objectivity
of the valuer. ISA 620 Using the Work of an Expert contains guidance in this area.
Competence
Enquiries could include:
– Is the valuer a member of a recognised professional body, for example a nationally or internationally recognised
institute of registered surveyors?
– Does the valuer possess any necessary licence to carry out valuations for companies?
– How long has the valuer been a member of the recognised body, or how long has the valuer been licensed under
that body?
– How much experience does the valuer have in providing valuations of the particular type of investment properties
held by Poppy Co?
– Does the valuer have specific experience of evaluating properties for the purpose of including their fair value within
the financial statements?
– Is there any evidence of the reputation of the valuer, e.g. professional references, recommendations from other
companies for which a valuation service has been provided?
– How much experience, if any, does the valuer have with Poppy Co?
Using the above enquiries, the auditor is trying to form. an opinion as to the relevance and reliability of the valuation
provided. ISA 500 Audit Evidence requires that the auditor gathers evidence that is both sufficient and appropriate. The
auditor needs to ensure that the fair values provided by the valuer for inclusion in the financial statements have been
arrived at using appropriate knowledge and skill which should be evidenced by the valuer being a member of a
professional body, and, if necessary, holding a licence under that body.
It is important that the fair values have been arrived at using methods allowed under IAS 40 Investment Property. If any
other valuation method has been used then the value recognised in the statement of financial position may not be in
accordance with financial reporting standards. Thus it is important to understand whether the valuer has experience
specifically in providing valuations that comply with IAS 40, and how many times the valuer has appraised properties
similar to those owned by Poppy Co.
In gauging the reliability of the fair value, the auditor may wish to consider how Poppy Co decided to appoint this
particular valuer, e.g. on the basis of a recommendation or after receiving references from companies for which
valuations had previously been provided.
It will also be important to consider how familiar the valuer is with Poppy Co’s business and environment, as a way to
assess the reliability and appropriateness of any assumptions used in the valuation technique.
Objectivity
Enquiries could include:
– Does the valuer have any financial interest in Poppy Co, e.g. shares held directly or indirectly in the company?
– Does the valuer have any personal relationship with any director or employee of Poppy Co?
– Is the fee paid for the valuation service reasonable and a fair, market based price?
With these enquiries, the auditor is gaining assurance that the valuer will perform. the valuation from an independent
point of view. If the valuer had a financial interest in Poppy Co, there would be incentive to manipulate the valuation in
a way best suited to the financial statements of the company. Equally if the valuer had a personal relationship with a
senior member of staff at Poppy Co, the valuer may feel pressured to give a favourable opinion on the valuation of the
properties.
The level of fee paid is important. It should be commensurate with the market rate paid for this type of valuation. If the
valuer was paid in excess of what might be considered a normal fee, it could indicate that the valuer was encouraged,
or even bribed, to provide a favourable valuation.


JJG Co is planning to raise $15 million of new finance for a major expansion of existing business and is considering a rights issue, a placing or an issue of bonds. The corporate objectives of JJG Co, as stated in its Annual Report, are to maximise the wealth of its shareholders and to achieve continuous growth in earnings per share. Recent financial information on JJG Co is as follows:

Required:

(a) Evaluate the financial performance of JJG Co, and analyse and discuss the extent to which the company has achieved its stated corporate objectives of:

(i) maximising the wealth of its shareholders;

(ii) achieving continuous growth in earnings per share.

Note: up to 7 marks are available for financial analysis.(12 marks)

(b) If the new finance is raised via a rights issue at $7·50 per share and the major expansion of business has

not yet begun, calculate and comment on the effect of the rights issue on:

(i) the share price of JJG Co;

(ii) the earnings per share of the company; and

(iii) the debt/equity ratio. (6 marks)

(c) Analyse and discuss the relative merits of a rights issue, a placing and an issue of bonds as ways of raising the finance for the expansion. (7 marks)

正确答案:
AchievementofcorporateobjectivesJJGCohasshareholderwealthmaximisationasanobjective.Thewealthofshareholdersisincreasedbydividendsreceivedandcapitalgainsonsharesowned.Totalshareholderreturncomparesthesumofthedividendreceivedandthecapitalgainwiththeopeningshareprice.TheshareholdersofJJGCohadareturnof58%in2008,comparedwithareturnpredictedbythecapitalassetpricingmodelof14%.Thelowestreturnshareholdershavereceivedwas21%andthehighestreturnwas82%.Onthisbasis,theshareholdersofthecompanyhaveexperiencedasignificantincreaseinwealth.Itisdebatablewhetherthishasbeenasaresultoftheactionsofthecompany,however.Sharepricesmayincreaseirrespectiveoftheactionsanddecisionsofmanagers,orevendespitethem.Infact,lookingatthedividendpersharehistoryofthecompany,therewasoneyear(2006)wheredividendswereconstant,eventhoughearningspershareincreased.Itisalsodifficulttoknowwhenwealthhasbeenmaximised.Anotherobjectiveofthecompanywastoachieveacontinuousincreaseinearningspershare.Analysisshowsthatearningspershareincreasedeveryyear,withanaverageincreaseof14·9%.Thisobjectiveappearstohavebeenachieved.CommentonfinancialperformanceReturnoncapitalemployed(ROCE)hasbeengrowingtowardsthesectoraverageof25%onayear-by-yearbasisfrom22%in2005.Thissteadygrowthintheprimaryaccountingratiocanbecontrastedwithirregulargrowthinturnover,thereasonsforwhichareunknown.Returnonshareholders’fundshasbeenconsistentlyhigherthantheaverageforthesector.ThismaybeduemoretothecapitalstructureofJJGCothantogoodperformancebythecompany,however,inthesensethatshareholders’fundsaresmalleronabookvaluebasisthanthelong-termdebtcapital.Ineverypreviousyearbut2008thegearingofthecompanywashigherthanthesectoraverage.(b)CalculationoftheoreticalexrightspershareCurrentshareprice=$8·64pershareCurrentnumberofshares=5·5millionsharesFinancetoberaised=$15mRightsissueprice=$7·50pershareNumberofsharesissued=15m/7·50=2millionsharesTheoreticalexrightspricepershare=((5·5mx8·64)+(2mx7·50))/7·5m=$8·34pershareThesharepricewouldfallfrom$8·64to$8·34pershareHowever,therewouldbenoeffectonshareholderwealthEffectofrightsissueonearningspershareCurrentEPS=100centspershareRevisedEPS=100x5·5m/7·5m=73centspershareTheEPSwouldfallfrom100centspershareto73centspershareHowever,asmentionedearlier,therewouldbenoeffectonshareholderwealthEffectofrightsissueonthedebt/equityratioCurrentdebt/equityratio=100x20/47·5=42%Revisedmarketvalueofequity=7·5mx8·34=$62·55millionReviseddebt/equityratio=100x20/62·55=32%Thedebt/equityratiowouldfallfrom42%to32%,whichiswellbelowthesectoraveragevalueandwouldsignalareductioninfinancialrisk(c)Thecurrentdebt/equityratioofJJGCois42%(20/47·5).Althoughthisislessthanthesectoraveragevalueof50%,itismoreusefulfromafinancialriskperspectivetolookattheextenttowhichinterestpaymentsarecoveredbyprofits.Theinterestonthebondissueis$1·6million(8%of$20m),givinganinterestcoverageratioof6·1times.IfJJGCohasoverdraftfinance,theinterestcoverageratiowillbelowerthanthis,butthereisinsufficientinformationtodetermineifanoverdraftexists.Theinterestcoverageratioisnotonlybelowthesectoraverage,itisalsolowenoughtobeacauseforconcern.Whiletheratioshowsanupwardtrendovertheperiodunderconsideration,itstillindicatesthatanissueoffurtherdebtwouldbeunwise.Aplacing,oranyissueofnewsharessuchasarightsissueorapublicoffer,woulddecreasegearing.Iftheexpansionofbusinessresultsinanincreaseinprofitbeforeinterestandtax,theinterestcoverageratiowillincreaseandfinancialriskwillfall.GiventhecurrentfinancialpositionofJJGCo,adecreaseinfinancialriskiscertainlypreferabletoanincrease.Aplacingwilldiluteownershipandcontrol,providingthenewequityissueistakenupbynewinstitutionalshareholders,whilearightsissuewillnotdiluteownershipandcontrol,providingexistingshareholderstakeuptheirrights.Abondissuedoesnothaveownershipandcontrolimplications,althoughrestrictiveornegativecovenantsinbondissuedocumentscanlimittheactionsofacompanyanditsmanagers.Allthreefinancingchoicesarelong-termsourcesoffinanceandsoareappropriateforalong-terminvestmentsuchastheproposedexpansionofexistingbusiness.Equityissuessuchasaplacingandarightsissuedonotrequiresecurity.Noinformationisprovidedonthenon-currentassetsofJJGCo,butitislikelythattheexistingbondissueissecured.Ifanewbondissuewasbeingconsidered,JJGCowouldneedtoconsiderwhetherithadsufficientnon-currentassetstoofferassecurity,althoughitislikelythatnewnon-currentassetswouldbeboughtaspartofthebusinessexpansion.


2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第6章


(iii) problems with delegation; (4 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) Problems with delegation are threefold. Firstly, reluctance from managers who are afraid of losing control, who fear that subordinates may carry out the work badly and who are resentful of subordinate development. Secondly, there is the problem of lack of confidence, lack of self confidence in the manager and often a lack of confidence in the subordinates.Thirdly, there are problems of trust; that is the amount of trust the superior has in the subordinate and the trust that the subordinate feels the superior has in him or her.


(b) The marketing director of CTC has suggested the introduction of a new toy ‘Nellie the Elephant’ for which the

following estimated information is available:

1. Sales volumes and selling prices per unit

Year ending, 31 May 2009 2010 2011

Sales units (000) 80 180 100

Selling price per unit ($) 50 50 50

2. Nellie will generate a contribution to sales ratio of 50% throughout the three year period.

3. Product specific fixed overheads during the year ending 31 May 2009 are estimated to be $1·6 million. It

is anticipated that these fixed overheads would decrease by 10% per annum during each of the years ending

31 May 2010 and 31 May 2011.

4. Capital investment amounting to $3·9 million would be required in June 2008. The investment would have

no residual value at 31 May 2011.

5. Additional working capital of $500,000 would be required in June 2008. A further $200,000 would be

required on 31 May 2009. These amounts would be recovered in full at the end of the three year period.

6. The cost of capital is expected to be 12% per annum.

Assume all cash flows (other than where stated) arise at the end of the year.

Required:

(i) Determine whether the new product is viable purely on financial grounds. (4 marks)

正确答案:

 


(c) Calculate the theoretical ex rights price per share and the net funds to be raised by the rights issue, and

determine and discuss the likely effect of the proposed expansion on:

(i) the current share price of Merton plc;

(ii) the gearing of the company.

Assume that the price–earnings ratio of Merton plc remains unchanged at 12 times. (11 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Rights issue price = 2·45 x 0·8 = £1·96
Theoretical ex rights price = ((2 x 2·45) + (1 x 1·96))/3 = 6·86/3 = £2·29
New shares issued = 20m x 1/2 = 10 million
Funds raised = 1·96 x 10m = £19·6 million
After issue costs of £300,000 funds raised will be £19·3 million
Annual after-tax return generated by these funds = 19·3 x 0·09 = £1,737,000
New earnings of Merton plc = 1,737,000 + 4,500,000 = £6,237,000
New number of shares = 20m + 10m = 30 million
New earnings per share = 100 x 6,237,000/30,000,000 = 20·79 pence
New share price = 20·79 x 12 = £2·49
The weaknesses in this estimate are that the predicted return on investment of 9% may or may not be achieved: the priceearnings
ratio depends on the post investment share price, rather than the post investment share price depending on the
price-earnings ratio; the current earnings seem to be declining and this share price estimate assumes they remain constant;
in fact current earnings are likely to decline because the overdraft and annual interest are increasing but operating profit is
falling.
Expected gearing = 38/(60 + 19·3) = 47·9% compared to current gearing of 63%.
Including the overdraft, expected gearing = 46/(60 + 19·3) = 58% compared to 77%.
The gearing is predictably lower, but if the overdraft is included in the calculation the gearing of the company is still higher
than the sector average. The positive effect on financial risk could have a positive effect on the company’s share price, but
this is by no means certain.


6 Alasdair, aged 42, is single. He is considering investing in property, as he has heard that this represents a good

investment. In order to raise the funds to buy the property, he wants to extract cash from his personal company, Beezer

Limited, whose year end is 31 December.

Beezer Limited was formed on 1 May 1998 with £1,000 of capital issued as 1,000 £1 ordinary shares, and traded

until 1 January 2005 when Alasdair sold the trade and related assets. The company’s only asset is cash of

£120,000. Alasdair wants to extract this cash from the company with the minimum amount of tax payable. He is

considering either, paying himself a dividend of £120,000, on 31 March 2006, after which the company would have

no assets and be wound up or, leaving the cash in the company and then liquidating the company. Costs of liquidation

of £5,000 would then be incurred.

Since Beezer Limited ceased trading, Alasdair has been taken on as a partner at a marketing firm, Gallus & Co. He

estimates his profit share for the year of assessment 2005/06 will be £30,000. He has not made any capital disposals

in the current tax year.

Alasdair wishes to reinvest the cash extracted from Beezer Limited in property but is not sure whether he should invest

directly in residential or commercial property, or do so via some form. of collective investment. He is aware that Gallus

& Co are looking to rent a new warehouse which could be bought for £200,000. Alasdair thinks that he may be able

to buy the warehouse himself and lease it to his firm, but only if he can borrow the additional money to buy the

property.

Alasdair has a 25% shareholding in another company, Glaikit Limited, whose year end is 31 March. The remaining

shares in this company are held by his friend, Gill. Alasdair is considering borrowing £15,000 from Glaikit Limited

on 1 January 2006. He does not intend to pay any interest on the loan, which is likely to be written off some time

in 2007. Alasdair does not have any connection with Glaikit Limited other than his shareholding.

Required:

(a) Advise Alasdair whether or not a dividend payment will result in a higher after-tax cash sum than the

liquidation of Beezer Limited. Assume that either the dividend would be paid on 31 March 2006 or the

liquidation would take place on 31 March 2006. (9 marks)

Assume that Beezer Limited has always paid corporation tax at or above the small companies rate of 19%

and that the tax rates and allowances for 2004/05 apply throughout this part.

正确答案:

 


3 Mary Hobbes joined the board of Rosh and Company, a large retailer, as finance director earlier this year. Whilst she

was glad to have finally been given the chance to become finance director after several years as a financial

accountant, she also quickly realised that the new appointment would offer her a lot of challenges. In the first board

meeting, she realised that not only was she the only woman but she was also the youngest by many years.

Rosh was established almost 100 years ago. Members of the Rosh family have occupied senior board positions since

the outset and even after the company’s flotation 20 years ago a member of the Rosh family has either been executive

chairman or chief executive. The current longstanding chairman, Timothy Rosh, has already prepared his slightly

younger brother, Geoffrey (also a longstanding member of the board) to succeed him in two years’ time when he plans

to retire. The Rosh family, who still own 40% of the shares, consider it their right to occupy the most senior positions

in the company so have never been very active in external recruitment. They only appointed Mary because they felt

they needed a qualified accountant on the board to deal with changes in international financial reporting standards.

Several former executive members have been recruited as non-executives immediately after they retired from full-time

service. A recent death, however, has reduced the number of non-executive directors to two. These sit alongside an

executive board of seven that, apart from Mary, have all been in post for over ten years.

Mary noted that board meetings very rarely contain any significant discussion of strategy and never involve any debate

or disagreement. When she asked why this was, she was told that the directors had all known each other for so long

that they knew how each other thought. All of the other directors came from similar backgrounds, she was told, and

had worked for the company for so long that they all knew what was ‘best’ for the company in any given situation.

Mary observed that notes on strategy were not presented at board meetings and she asked Timothy Rosh whether the

existing board was fully equipped to formulate strategy in the changing world of retailing. She did not receive a reply.

Required:

(a) Explain ‘agency’ in the context of corporate governance and criticise the governance arrangements of Rosh

and Company. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Defining and explaining agency
Agency is defined in relation to a principal. A principal appoints an agent to act on his or her behalf. In the case of corporate
governance, the principal is a shareholder in a joint stock company and the agents (that have an agency relationship with
principals) are the directors. The directors remain accountable to the principals for the stewardship of their investment in the
company. In the case of Rosh, 60% of the shares are owned by shareholders external to the Rosh family and the board has
agency responsibility to those shareholders.
Criticisms of Rosh’s CG arrangements
The corporate governance arrangements at Rosh and Company are far from ideal. Five points can be made based on the
evidence in the case.
There are several issues associated with the non-executive directors (NEDs) at Rosh. It is doubtful whether two NEDs are
enough to bring sufficient scrutiny to the executive board. Some corporate governance codes require half of the board of larger
companies to be non-executive and Rosh would clearly be in breach of such a requirement. Perhaps of equal concern, there
is significant doubt over the independence of the current NEDs as they were recruited from retired executive members of the
board and presumably have relationships with existing executives going back many years. Some corporate governance codes
(such as the UK Combined Code) specify that NEDs should not have worked for the company within the last five years. Again,
Rosh would be in breach of this provision.
Succession planning for senior positions in the company seems to be based on Rosh family membership rather than any
meritocratic approach to appointments (there doesn’t appear to be a nominations committee). Whilst this may have been
acceptable before the flotation when the Rosh family owned all of the shares, the flotation introduced an important need for
external scrutiny of this arrangement. The lack of NED independence makes this difficult.
There is a poor (very narrow) diversity of backgrounds among board members. Whilst diversity can bring increased conflict,
it is generally assumed that it can also stimulate discussion and debate that is often helpful.
There is a somewhat entrenched executive board and Mary is the first new appointment to the board in many years (and is
the first woman). Whilst experience is very important on a board, the appointment of new members, in addition to seeding
the board with talent for the future, can also bring fresh ideas and helpful scrutiny of existing policies.
There is no discussion of strategy and there is evidence of a lack of preparation of strategic notes to the board. The assumption
seems to be that the ‘best’ option is obvious and so there is no need for discussion and debate. Procedures for preparing
briefing notes on strategy for board meetings appear to be absent. Most corporate governance codes place the discussion and
setting of strategy as a high priority for boards and Rosh would be in breach of such a provision.
There is no evidence of training for Mary to facilitate her introduction into the organisation and its systems. Thorough training
of new members and ongoing professional development of existing members is an important component of good governance.


Assume that the rates and allowances for 2004/05 apply throughout this part.

(b) Explain the consequences of filing the VAT returns late and advise Fred how he should deal with the

underpayment and bad debt for VAT purposes. Your explanation should be supported by relevant

calculations. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Late filing of VAT returns
The late filing of two or more VAT returns within the period of one year will give rise to a default surcharge. This occurs when
either
– The return is late and/or
– The payment is late.
Customs & Excise will serve a surcharge liability notice on the taxpayer when a single return is filed late and/or the VAT due
is paid late. The surcharge period will run from the date of notice to the anniversary of the quarter end of the period in which
the trader is in default.
Any further defaults within the surcharge period will extend the surcharge period.
If there is a late payment of VAT in the surcharge period, a surcharge will be levied at the rate of 2% on the first occasion,
rising progressively to a maximum of 15% if there are several defaults. One complete year of correct compliance is necessary
to escape the default surcharge regime.
For Flop Ltd, the surcharge period originally ran to 31 December 2005 but was extended to 31 March 2006 as the second
return is late. This could be extended again if the June return is late. The second default (31 March return) will give rise to
a 2% surcharge, based on the tax paid late of £24,000. This gives a surcharge of £480. This exceeds the de minimus level
of £400, so will be collected.
To avoid a further surcharge, the VAT return to 30 June 2005 should be submitted by 31 July at the latest. This would save
5% x £8,250 = £412.
In addition, Flop Ltd should obtain a refund of the VAT on the bad debt. Relief is available where;
(i) the debt is more than six months old, and
(ii) the debt has been written off in the creditor’s accounts.
The claim must be made within three years. The amount of VAT repayable is 17·5% of £50,000 = £8,750. If this is claimed
though the VAT return to 30 June 2005, there should be a net VAT repayment of (£8,250 - £8,750) = £500. Even if this
return is submitted late, the fact that no VAT is outstanding means that there will be no surcharge actually payable (as
calculated above), but the surcharge period will nevertheless be extended.


(c) Illustrate how:

(i) inquiry; and (4 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Due diligence review
(i) Inquiries
Tutorial note: These should be focussed on uncovering facts that may not be revealed by the audited financial
statements (e.g. off balance sheet finance, contingencies, commitments and contracts) especially where knowledge
may be confined to management.
■ Do any members of MCM’s senior/executive management have contractual terms that will result in significant
payouts to them (e.g. on change of ownership of the company or their being made redundant)?
■ What contracts with clients, if any, will lapse or be made void in the event that MCM is purchased from Frontiers?
■ What synergy or inter-company trading, if any, currently exists between MCM and Frontiers? For example, Frontiers
may publish MCM’s training materials.
■ Are there any major clients who are likely to be lost if MCM is purchased by Plaza (e.g. any competitor food
retailers)?
■ What are the principal terms of the operating leases relating to the International business’s premises?
■ What penalties should be expected to be incurred if operating leases and/or contracts with training consultants are
terminated?
■ Has MCM entered into any purchase commitments since 31 December 2004 (e.g. to buy or lease further
premises)?
■ Who are the best trainers that Plaza should seek to retain after the purchase of MCM?
■ What events since the audited financial statements to 31 December 2004 were published have made a significant
impact on MCM’s assets, liabilities, operating capability and/or cash flows? (For example, storm damage to
premises, major clients defaulting on payments, significant interest/foreign-exchange rate fluctuations, etc.)
■ Are there any unresolved tax issues which have not been provided for in full?
■ What effect will the purchase have on loan covenants? For example, term loans may be rendered repayable on a
change of ownership.


(c) Explain the reasons for the concerns of the government of Happyland with companies such as TMC and

advise the directors of a strategy that might be considered in order to avoid being subject to any forthcoming

legislation concerning the environment. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(c) The government of Happyland will be concerned by the negative impact on the environment. The growth in the number of
children born in Happyland will have raised the demand for disposable nappies as is evidenced from the market size data
contained in the question. In some countries disposable nappies make up around 4% of all household waste and can take
up to five hundred years to decompose! The government will be concerned by the fact that trees are being destroyed in order
to keep babies and infant children in nappies. The disposal costs incurred by the government in terms of landfill etc will be
very high, hence its green paper on the effect of non-biodegradable products in Happyland. The costs of such operations as
the landfill for such products will need to be funded out of increased taxation.
It might be beneficial for the directors of TMC to develop more eco-friendly products such as washable nappies which, by
definition, are recyclable many times over during the life of the ‘product’. Many parents are now changing to ‘real nappies’
because they work out cheaper and better for the environment than disposables.


(d) Prepare the statement for Mr Markovnikoff to read out at the AGM. The statement you construct should

contain the following.

(i) A definition and brief explanation of ‘sustainable development’; (3 marks)

正确答案:
(d) Chairman’s statement at AGM
Thank you for coming to the annual general meeting of Rowlands & Mendeleev. I would like to make a statement in response
to the concerns that a number of our investors have made in respect to our appointment as the principal contractor for the
prestigious and internationally important Giant Dam Project. We are very pleased and honoured to have won the contract but
as several have observed, this does leave us in a position of having a number of issues and risks to manage.
As a project with obvious environmental implications, the board and I wish to reassure investors that we are aware of these
implications and have taken them into account in our overall assessment of risks associated with the project.
(i) A definition of ‘sustainable development’
One investor asked if we could explain the sustainability issues and I begin with addressing that issue. According to the
well-established Brundtland definition, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
This definition has implications for energy, land use, natural resources and waste emissions. In a sustainable
development, all of these should be consumed or produced at the same rate they can be renewed or absorbed so as to
prevent leaving future generations with an unwanted legacy of today’s economic activity. We believe that our involvement
in the Giant Dam Project has implications for environmental sustainability and it is to these matters that I now turn.
Tutorial note: other relevant definitions of sustainability will be equally acceptable.


2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第7章


Following a competitive tender, your audit firm Cal & Co has just gained a new audit client Tirrol Co. You are the manager in charge of planning the audit work. Tirrol Co’s year end is 30 June 2009 with a scheduled date to complete the audit of 15 August 2009. The date now is 3 June 2009.

Tirrol Co provides repair services to motor vehicles from 25 different locations. All inventory, sales and purchasing systems are computerised, with each location maintaining its own computer system. The software in each location is

the same because the programs were written specifically for Tirrol Co by a reputable software house. Data from each location is amalgamated on a monthly basis at Tirrol Co’s head office to produce management and financial accounts.

You are currently planning your audit approach for Tirrol Co. One option being considered is to re-write Cal & Co’s audit software to interrogate the computerised inventory systems in each location of Tirrol Co (except for head office)

as part of inventory valuation testing. However, you have also been informed that any computer testing will have to be on a live basis and you are aware that July is a major holiday period for your audit firm.

Required:

(a) (i) Explain the benefits of using audit software in the audit of Tirrol Co; (4 marks)

(ii) Explain the problems that may be encountered in the audit of Tirrol Co and for each problem, explain

how that problem could be overcome. (10 marks)

(b) Following a discussion with the management at Tirrol Co you now understand that the internal audit department are prepared to assist with the statutory audit. Specifically, the chief internal auditor is prepared to provide you with documentation on the computerised inventory systems at Tirrol Co. The documentation provides details of the software and shows diagrammatically how transactions are processed through the inventory system. This documentation can be used to significantly decrease the time needed to understand the computer systems and enable audit software to be written for this year’s audit.

Required:

Explain how you will evaluate the computer systems documentation produced by the internal audit

department in order to place reliance on it during your audit. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(a)(i)BenefitsofusingauditsoftwareStandardsystemsatclientThesamecomputerisedsystemsandprogramsasusedinall25branchesofTirrolCo.Thismeansthatthesameauditsoftwarecanbeusedineachlocationprovidingsignificanttimesavingscomparedtothesituationwhereclientsystemsaredifferentineachlocation.UseactualcomputerfilesnotcopiesorprintoutsUseofauditsoftwaremeansthattheTirrolCo’sactualinventoryfilescanbetestedratherthanhavingtorelyonprintoutsorscreenimages.Thelattercouldbeincorrect,byaccidentorbydeliberatemistake.Theauditfirmwillhavemoreconfidencethatthe‘real’fileshavebeentested.TestmoreitemsUseofsoftwarewillmeanthatmoreinventoryrecordscanbetested–itispossiblethatallproductlinescouldbetestedforobsolescenceratherthanasampleusingmanualtechniques.Theauditorwillthereforegainmoreevidenceandhavegreaterconfidencethatinventoryisvaluedcorrectly.CostTherelativecostofusingauditsoftwaredecreasesthemoreyearsthatsoftwareisused.Anycostoverrunsthisyearcouldbeoffsetagainsttheauditfeesinfutureyearswhentheactualexpensewillbeless.(ii)ProblemsontheauditofTirrolTimescale–sixweekreportingdeadline–auditplanningTheauditreportisduetobesignedsixweeksaftertheyearend.Thismeansthattherewillbeconsiderablepressureontheauditortocompleteauditworkwithoutcompromisingstandardsbyrushingprocedures.Thisproblemcanbeovercomebycarefulplanningoftheaudit,useofexperiencedstaffandensuringotherstaffsuchassecondpartnerreviewsarebookedwellinadvance.Timescale–sixweekreportingdeadline–softwareissuesTheauditreportisduetobesignedaboutsixweeksaftertheyearend.Thismeansthatthereislittletimetowriteandtestauditsoftware,letaloneusethesoftwareandevaluatetheresultsoftesting.Thisproblemcanbealleviatedbycarefulplanning.AccesstoTirrolCo’ssoftwareanddatafilesmustbeobtainedassoonaspossibleandworkcommencedontailoringCal&Co’ssoftwarefollowingthis.Specialistcomputerauditstaffshouldbebookedassoonaspossibletoperform.thiswork.FirstyearauditcostsTherelativecostsofanauditinthefirstyearataclienttendtobegreaterduetotheadditionalworkofascertainingclientsystems.ThismeansthatCal&Comayhavealimitedbudgettodocumentsystemsincludingcomputersystems.Thisproblemcanbealleviatedtosomeextentagainbygoodauditplanning.Themanagermustalsomonitortheauditprocesscarefully,ensuringthatanyadditionalworkcausedbytheclientnotprovidingaccesstosystemsinformationincludingcomputersystemsisidentifiedandaddedtothetotalbillingcostoftheaudit.StaffholidaysMostoftheauditworkwillbecarriedoutinJuly,whichisalsothemonthwhenmanyofCal&Costafftaketheirannualholiday.Thismeansthattherewillbeashortageofauditstaff,particularlyasauditworkforTirrolCoisbeingbookedwithlittlenotice.Theproblemcanbealleviatedbybookingstaffassoonaspossibleandthenidentifyinganyshortages.Wherenecessary,staffmaybeborrowedfromotherofficesorevendifferentcountriesonasecondmentbasiswhereshortagesareacute.Non-standardsystemsTirrolCo’scomputersoftwareisnon-standard,havingbeenwrittenspecificallyfortheorganisation.Thismeansthatmoretimewillbenecessarytounderstandthesystemthanifstandardsystemswereused.Thisproblemcanbealleviatedeitherbyobtainingdocumentationfromtheclientorbyapproachingthesoftwarehouse(withTirrolCo’spermission)toseeiftheycanassistwithprovisionofinformationondatastructuresfortheinventorysystems.ProvisionofthisinformationwilldecreasethetimetakentotailorauditsoftwareforuseinTirrolCo.IssuesoflivetestingCal&Cohasbeeninformedthatinventorysystemsmustbetestedonalivebasis.Thisincreasestheriskofaccidentalamendmentordeletionofclientdatasystemscomparedtotestingcopyfiles.Tolimitthepossibilityofdamagetoclientsystems,Cal&CocanconsiderperforminginventorytestingondayswhenTirrolCoisnotoperatinge.g.weekends.Attheworst,backupsofdatafilestakenfromthepreviousdaycanbere-installedwhenCal&Co’stestingiscomplete.ComputersystemsTheclienthas25locations,witheachlocationmaintainingitsowncomputersystem.Itispossiblethatcomputersystemsarenotcommonacrosstheclientduetoamendmentsmadeatthebranchlevel.Thisproblemcanbeovercometosomeextentbyaskingstaffateachbranchwhethersystemshavebeenamendedandfocusingauditworkonmaterialbranches.UsefulnessofauditsoftwareTheuseofauditsoftwareatTirrolCodoesappeartohavesignificantproblemsthisyear.Thismeansthateveniftheauditsoftwareisready,theremaystillbesomeriskofincorrectconclusionsbeingderivedduetolackoftesting,etc.Thisproblemcanbealleviatedbyseriouslyconsideringthepossibilityofusingamanualauditthisyear.Themanagermayneedtoinvestigatewhetheramanualauditisfeasibleandifsowhetheritcouldbecompletedwithinthenecessarytimescalewithminimalauditrisk.(b)RelianceoninternalauditdocumentationTherearetwoissuestoconsider;theabilityofinternalaudittoproducethedocumentationandtheactualaccuracyofthedocumentationitself.Theabilityoftheinternalauditdepartmenttoproducethedocumentationcanbedeterminedby:–Ensuringthatthedepartmenthasstaffwhohaveappropriatequalifications.Provisionofarelevantqualificatione.g.membershipofacomputerrelatedinstitutewouldbeappropriate.–Ensuringthatthisandsimilardocumentationisproducedusingarecognisedplanandthatthedocumentationistestedpriortouse.Theuseofdifferentstaffintheinternalauditdepartmenttoproduceandtestdocumentationwillincreaseconfidenceinitsaccuracy.–Ensuringthatthedocumentationisactuallyusedduringinternalauditworkandthatproblemswithdocumentationarenotedandinvestigatedaspartofthatwork.Beinggivenaccesstointernalauditreportsontheinventorysoftwarewillprovideappropriateevidence.Regardingtheactualdocumentation:–Reviewingthedocumentationtoensurethatitappearslogicalandthattermsandsymbolsareusedconsistentlythroughout.Thiswillprovideevidencethattheflowcharts,etcshouldbeaccurate.–Comparingthedocumentationagainstthe‘live’inventorysystemtoensureitcorrectlyreflectstheinventorysystem.Thiscomparisonwillincludetracingindividualtransactionsthroughtheinventorysystems.–UsingpartofthedocumentationtoamendCal&Co’sauditsoftware,andthenensuringthatthesoftwareprocessesinventorysystemdataaccurately.However,thisstagemaybelimitedduetotheneedtouselivefilesatTirrolCo.


(c) Critically discuss FOUR principal roles of non-executive directors and explain the potential tensions between

these roles that WM’s non-executive directors may experience in advising on the disclosure of the

overestimation of the mallerite reserve. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Non-executive directors
Roles of NEDs
Non-executive directors have four principal roles.
The strategy role recognises that NEDs are full members of the board and thus have the right and responsibility to contribute
to the strategic success of the organisation for the benefit of shareholders. The enterprise must have a clear strategic direction
and NEDs should be able to bring considerable experience from their lives and business experience to bear on ensuring that
chosen strategies are sound. In this role they may challenge any aspect of strategy they see fit and offer advice or input to
help to develop successful strategy.
In the scrutinising or performance role, NEDs are required to hold executive colleagues to account for decisions taken and
company performance. In this respect they are required to represent the shareholders’ interests against the possibility that
agency issues arise to reduce shareholder value.
The risk role involves NEDs ensuring the company has an adequate system of internal controls and systems of risk
management in place. This is often informed by prescribed codes (such as Turnbull in the UK) but some industries, such as
chemicals, have other systems in place, some of which fall under ISO standards. In this role, NEDs should satisfy themselves
on the integrity of financial information and that financial controls and systems of risk management are robust and defensible.
Finally, the ‘people’ role involves NEDs overseeing a range of responsibilities with regard to the management of the executive
members of the board. This typically involves issues on appointments and remuneration, but might also involve contractual
or disciplinary issues and succession planning.
Tutorial note: these four roles are as described in the UK Higgs Report and are also contained in the Combined Code 2003.
Tensions in NED roles in the case
This refers to a potential tension in the loyalties of the NEDs. Although the NED is accountable, through the chairman to the
shareholders and thus must always act in the economic best interests of the shareholders, he or she is also a part of the board
of the company and they may, in some situations, advise discretion. Withholding information might be judged correct because
of strategic considerations or longer-term shareholder interests. In most situations, NEDs will argue for greater transparency,
less concealment and more clarity of how and why a given action will be in the interests of shareholders.
The case of mallerite overestimation places the WM NEDs in a position of some tension. Any instinct to conceal the full extent
of the overestimate of the reserve for the possible protection of the company’s short-term value must be balanced against the
duty to serve longer-term strategic interests and the public interest. Whilst concealment would protect the company’s
reputation and share price in the short term, it would be a duty of the NEDs to point out that WM should observe transparency
as far as possible in its dealing with the shareholders and other capital market participants.


(a) The following information relates to Crosswire a publicly listed company.

Summarised statements of financial position as at:

The following information is available:

(i) During the year to 30 September 2009, Crosswire embarked on a replacement and expansion programme for its non-current assets. The details of this programme are:

On 1 October 2008 Crosswire acquired a platinum mine at a cost of $5 million. A condition of mining the

platinum is a requirement to landscape the mining site at the end of its estimated life of ten years. The

present value of this cost at the date of the purchase was calculated at $3 million (in addition to the

purchase price of the mine of $5 million).

Also on 1 October 2008 Crosswire revalued its freehold land for the first time. The credit in the revaluation

reserve is the net amount of the revaluation after a transfer to deferred tax on the gain. The tax rate applicable to Crosswire for deferred tax is 20% per annum.

On 1 April 2009 Crosswire took out a finance lease for some new plant. The fair value of the plant was

$10 million. The lease agreement provided for an initial payment on 1 April 2009 of $2·4 million followed

by eight six-monthly payments of $1·2 million commencing 30 September 2009.

Plant disposed of during the year had a carrying amount of $500,000 and was sold for $1·2 million. The

remaining movement on the property, plant and equipment, after charging depreciation of $3 million, was

the cost of replacing plant.

(ii) From 1 October 2008 to 31 March 2009 a further $500,000 was spent completing the development

project at which date marketing and production started. The sales of the new product proved disappointing

and on 30 September 2009 the development costs were written down to $1 million via an impairment

charge.

(iii) During the year ended 30 September 2009, $4 million of the 10% convertible loan notes matured. The

loan note holders had the option of redemption at par in cash or to exchange them for equity shares on the

basis of 20 new shares for each $100 of loan notes. 75% of the loan-note holders chose the equity option.

Ignore any effect of this on the other equity reserve.

All the above items have been treated correctly according to International Financial Reporting Standards.

(iv) The finance costs are made up of:

Required:

(i) Prepare a statement of the movements in the carrying amount of Crosswire’s non-current assets for the

year ended 30 September 2009; (9 marks)

(ii) Calculate the amounts that would appear under the headings of ‘cash flows from investing activities’

and ‘cash flows from financing activities’ in the statement of cash flows for Crosswire for the year ended

30 September 2009.

Note: Crosswire includes finance costs paid as a financing activity. (8 marks)

(b) A substantial shareholder has written to the directors of Crosswire expressing particular concern over the

deterioration of the company’s return on capital employed (ROCE)

Required:

Calculate Crosswire’s ROCE for the two years ended 30 September 2008 and 2009 and comment on the

apparent cause of its deterioration.

Note: ROCE should be taken as profit before interest on long-term borrowings and tax as a percentage of equity plus loan notes and finance lease obligations (at the year end). (8 marks)

正确答案:
(i)Thecashelementsoftheincreaseinproperty,plantandequipmentare$5millionforthemine(thecapitalisedenvironmentalprovisionisnotacashflow)and$2·4millionforthereplacementplantmakingatotalof$7·4million.(ii)Ofthe$4millionconvertibleloannotes(5,000–1,000)thatwereredeemedduringtheyear,75%($3million)ofthesewereexchangedforequitysharesonthebasisof20newsharesforeach$100inloannotes.Thiswouldcreate600,000(3,000/100x20)newsharesof$1eachandsharepremiumof$2·4million(3,000–600).As1million(5,000–4,000)newshareswereissuedintotal,400,000musthavebeenforcash.Theremainingincrease(aftertheeffectoftheconversion)inthesharepremiumof$1·6million(6,000–2,000b/f–2,400conversion)mustrelatetothecashissueofshares,thuscashproceedsfromtheissueofsharesis$2million(400nominalvalue+1,600premium).(iii)Theinitialleaseobligationis$10million(thefairvalueoftheplant).At30September2009totalleaseobligationsare$6·8million(5,040+1,760),thusrepaymentsintheyearwere$3·2million(10,000–6,800).(b)TakingthedefinitionofROCEfromthequestion:Fromtheaboveitcanbeclearlyseenthatthe2009operatingmarginhasimprovedbynearly1%point,despitethe$2millionimpairmentchargeonthewritedownofthedevelopmentproject.ThismeansthedeteriorationintheROCEisduetopoorerassetturnover.Thisimpliestherehasbeenadecreaseintheefficiencyintheuseofthecompany’sassetsthisyearcomparedtolastyear.Lookingatthemovementinthenon-currentassetsduringtheyearrevealssomemitigatingpoints:Thelandrevaluationhasincreasedthecarryingamountofproperty,plantandequipmentwithoutanyphysicalincreaseincapacity.Thisunfavourablydistortsthecurrentyear’sassetturnoverandROCEfigures.TheacquisitionoftheplatinummineappearstobeanewareaofoperationforCrosswirewhichmayhaveadifferent(perhapslower)ROCEtootherpreviousactivitiesoritmaybethatitwilltakesometimefortheminetocometofullproductioncapacity.Thesubstantialacquisitionoftheleasedplantwashalf-waythroughtheyearandcanonlyhavecontributedtotheyear’sresultsforsixmonthsatbest.Infutureperiodsafullyear’scontributioncanbeexpectedfromthisnewinvestmentinplantandthisshouldimprovebothassetturnoverandROCE.Insummary,thefallintheROCEmaybeduelargelytotheabovefactors(effectivelythereplacementandexpansionprogramme),ratherthantopooroperatingperformance,andinfutureperiodsthismaybereversed.ItshouldalsobenotedthathadtheROCEbeencalculatedontheaveragecapitalemployedduringtheyear(ratherthantheyearendcapitalemployed),whichisarguablymorecorrect,thenthedeteriorationintheROCEwouldnothavebeenaspronounced.


24 What figure should appear in the consolidated balance sheet of the J group as at 31 December 2004 for minority

interest?

A $32,000

B $16,000

C $10,000

D $24,000

正确答案:D
20% x 120,000


3 The directors of The Healthy Eating Group (HEG), a successful restaurant chain, which commenced trading in 1998,

have decided to enter the sandwich market in Homeland, its country of operation. It has set up a separate operation

under the name of Healthy Sandwiches Co (HSC). A management team for HSC has been recruited via a recruitment

consultancy which specialises in food sector appointments. Homeland has very high unemployment and the vast

majority of its workforce has no experience in a food manufacturing environment. HSC will commence trading on

1 January 2008.

The following information is available:

(1) HSC has agreed to make and supply sandwiches to agreed recipes for the Superior Food Group (SFG) which

owns a chain of supermarkets in all towns and cities within Homeland. SFG insists that it selects the suppliers

of the ingredients that are used in making the sandwiches it sells and therefore HSC would be unable to reduce

the costs of the ingredients used in the sandwiches. HSC will be the sole supplier for SFG.

(2) The number of sandwiches sold per year in Homeland is 625 million. SFG has a market share of 4%.

(3) The average selling price of all sandwiches sold by SFG is $2·40. SFG wishes to make a mark-up of 331/3% on

all sandwiches sold. 90% of all sandwiches sold by SFG are sold before 2 pm each day. The majority of the

remaining 10% are sold after 8 pm. It is the intention that all sandwiches are sold on the day that they are

delivered into SFG’s supermarkets.

(4) The finance director of HSC has estimated that the average cost of ingredients per sandwich is $0·70. All

sandwiches are made by hand.

(5) Packaging and labelling costs amount to $0·15 per sandwich.

(6) Fixed overheads have been estimated to amount to $5,401,000 per annum. Note that fixed overheads include

all wages and salaries costs as all employees are subject to fixed term employment contracts.

(7) Distribution costs are expected to amount to 8% of HSC’s revenue.

(8) The finance director of HSC has stated that he believes the target sales margin of 32% can be achieved, although

he is concerned about the effect that an increase in the cost of all ingredients would have on the forecast profits

(assuming that all other revenue/cost data remains unchanged).

(9) The existing management information system of HEG was purchased at the time that HEG commenced trading.

The directors are now considering investing in an enterprise resource planning system (ERPS).

Required:

(a) Using only the above information, show how the finance director of HSC reached his conclusion regarding

the expected sales margin and also state whether he was correct to be concerned about an increase in the

price of ingredients. (5 marks)

正确答案:

 


(b) Explain how the adoption of residual income (RI) using the annuity method of depreciation might prove to

be a superior basis for the management incentive plan operated by NCL plc.

(N.B. No illustrative calculations should be incorporated into your explanation). (4 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The use of residual income as a basis for the management incentive plan operated by NCL plc would have the following
advantages:
Divisional management would be more willing to accept a project with a positive residual income and this would contribute
to the improved performance of NCL plc. Also, the disincentive to accept a project with a positive residual income but a return
on investment regarded by divisional management as not being in their best interests would be removed, because divisional
management would be rewarded.
The use of annuity depreciation may improve performance appraisal by removing the effect of straight-line depreciation which
tends to distort project returns especially in the early years of a project’s life when invested capital remains relatively high due
to the constant depreciation charge. The residual income approach using annuity depreciation will only match the NPV if the
annual cashflows of a project are constant. Hence the method when applied to the North or South projects would produce
an NPV which does not exactly match that previously calculated. By way of contrast it is forecast that the East project will
have constant cashflows and in this instance the NPV and residual income based approach when discounted, will produce
the same result.


(b) (i) State FOUR reasons why payback period is widely used by organisations in the capital investment

appraisal process. (2 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Payback period is widely used by organisations in the capital investment appraisal process due to the following reasons:
– It is easy to calculate and understand
– There is a lack of understanding of more sophisticated techniques which take into consideration the time value of
money
– Payback may be expedient for organisations who need to recover their capital outlay quickly due to the fact that
they are experiencing liquidity problems
– Payback is appropriate for smaller investments which do not warrant the use of more sophisticated techniques
– Payback reduces uncertainty by focusing on nearer and therefore more certain cash flows.


11 Which of the following statements are correct?

1 A company might make a rights issue if it wished to raise more equity capital.

2 A rights issue might increase the share premium account whereas a bonus issue is likely to reduce it.

3 A bonus issue will reduce the gearing (leverage) ratio of a company.

4 A rights issue will always increase the number of shareholders in a company whereas a bonus issue will not.

A 1 and 2

B 1 and 3

C 2 and 3

D 2 and 4

正确答案:A


(iii) State the value added tax (VAT) and stamp duty (SD) issues arising as a result of inserting Bold plc as

a holding company and identify any planning actions that can be taken to defer or minimise these tax

costs. (4 marks)

You should assume that the corporation tax rates for the financial year 2005 and the income tax rates

and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this question.

正确答案:
(iii) Bold plc will be making a taxable supply of services, likely to exceed the VAT threshold. It should therefore consider
registering for VAT – either immediately on a voluntary basis, or when its cumulative taxable supplies in the previous
twelve months exceed £60,000.
As an alternative, the new group can apply for a group VAT registration. This will simplify its VAT administration as intragroup
transactions are broadly disregarded for VAT purposes, and only one VAT return is required for the group as a
whole.
Stamp duty normally applies at 0·5% on the consideration payable in respect of transactions in shares. However, an
exemption is available in the case of a takeover, reconstruction or amalgamation where there is no real change in
ownership, i.e. the new shareholdings mirror the old shareholdings, and the transaction is for commercial purposes. The
insertion of a new holding company over an existing company, as proposed here, would qualify for this exemption.
There is no VAT on transactions in shares.


2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第8章


The town of Brighttown in Euraria has a mayor (elected every five years by the people in the town) who is responsible for, amongst other things, the transport policy of the town.

A year ago, the mayor (acting as project sponsor) instigated a ‘traffic lite’ project to reduce traffic congestion at traffic lights in the town. Rather than relying on fixed timings, he suggested that a system should be implemented which made the traffic lights sensitive to traffic flow. So, if a queue built up, then the lights would automatically change to green (go). The mayor suggested that this would have a number of benefits. Firstly, it would reduce harmful emissions at the areas near traffic lights and, secondly, it would improve the journey times for all vehicles, leading to drivers ‘being less stressed’. He also cited evidence from cities overseas where predictable journey times had been attractive to flexible companies who could set themselves up anywhere in the country. He felt that the new system would attract such companies to the town.

The Eurarian government has a transport regulation agency called OfRoad. Part of OfRoad’s responsibilities is to monitor transport investments and it was originally critical of the Brighttown ‘traffic lite’ project because the project’s benefits were intangible and lacked credibility. The business case did not include a quantitative cost/benefit analysis. OfRoad has itself published a benefits management process which classifies benefits in the following way.

Financial: A financial benefit can be confidently allocated in advance of the project. Thus if the investment will save $90,000 per year in staff costs then this is a financial benefit.

Quantifiable: A quantifiable benefit is a benefit where there is sufficient credible evidence to suggest, in advance, how much benefit will result from the project. This benefit may be financial or non-financial. For example, energy savings from a new building might be credibly predicted in advance. However, the exact amount of savings cannot be accurately forecast.

Measurable benefit: A measurable benefit is a benefit which can only be confidently assessed post-implementation, and so cannot be reliably predicted in advance. Increase in sales from a particular initiative is an example of a measurable benefit. Measurable benefits may either be financial or non-financial.

Observable benefit: An observable benefit is a benefit which a specific individual or group will decide, using agreed criteria, has been realised or not. Such benefits are usually non-financial. Improved staff morale might be an example of an observable benefit.

One month ago, the mayoral elections saw the election of a new mayor with a completely distinct transport policy with different objectives. She wishes to address traffic congestion by attracting commuters away from their cars and onto public transport. Part of her policy is a traffic light system which gives priority to buses. The town council owns the buses which operate in the town and they have invested heavily in buses which are comfortable and have significantly lower emissions than the conventional cars used by most people in the town. The new mayor wishes to improve the frequency, punctuality and convenience of these buses, so that they tempt people away from using their cars. This will require more buses and more bus crews, a requirement which the mayor presents as ‘being good for the unemployment rate in this town’. It will also help the bus service meet the punctuality service level which it published three years ago, but has never yet met. ‘A reduction in cars and an increase in buses will help us meet our target’, the mayor claims.

The mayor has also suggested a number of initiatives to discourage people from taking their cars into the town. She intends to sell two car parks for housing land (raising $325,000) and this will reduce car park capacity from 1,000 to 800 car spaces per day. She also intends to raise the daily parking fee from $3 to $4. Car park occupancy currently stands at 95% (it is difficult to achieve 100% for technical reasons) and the same occupancy rate is expected when the car park capacity is reduced.

The new mayor believes that her policy signals the fact that Brighttown is serious about its green credentials. ‘This’, she says, ‘will attract green consumers to come and live in our town and green companies to set up here. These companies and consumers will bring great benefit to our community.’ To emphasise this, she has set up a Go Green team to encourage green initiatives in the town.

The ‘traffic lite’ project to tackle congestion proposed by the former mayor is still in the development stage. The new mayor believes that this project can be modified to deliver her vision and still be ready on the date promised by her predecessor.

Required:

(a) A ‘terms of reference’ (project initiation document, project charter) was developed for the ‘traffic lite’ project to reduce traffic congestion.

Discuss what changes will have to be made to this ‘terms of reference’ (project initiation document, project charter) to reflect the new mayor’s vision of the project. (5 marks)

(b) The new mayor wishes to re-define the business case for the project, using the benefits categorisation suggested by OfRoad. Identify costs and benefits for the revised project, classifying each benefit using the guidance provided by OfRoad. (14 marks)

(c) Stakeholder management is the prime responsibility of the project manager.

Discuss the appropriate management of each of the following three stakeholders identified in the revised (modified) project.

(i) The new mayor;

(ii) OfRoad;

(iii) A private motorist in Brighttown who uses his vehicle to commute to his job in the town. (6 marks)

正确答案:

(a) Objectives and scope

From the perspective of the ‘traffic lite’ project, the change in mayor has led to an immediate change in the objectives driving the project. This illustrates how public sector projects are susceptible to sudden external environmental changes outside their control. The project initially proposed to reduce traffic congestion by making traffic lights sensitive to traffic flow. It was suggested that this would improve journey times for all vehicles using the roads of Brighttown. However, the incoming mayor now wishes to reduce traffic congestion by attracting car users onto public transport. Consequently she wants to develop a traffic light system which will give priority to buses. This should ensure that buses run on time. The project is no longer concerned with reducing journey times for all users. Indeed, congestion for private cars may get worse and this could further encourage car users to switch to public transport.

An important first step would be to confirm that the new mayor wishes to be the project sponsor for the project, because the project has lost its sponsor, the former mayor. The project scope also needs to be reviewed. The initial project was essentially a self-contained technical project aimed at producing a system which reduced queuing traffic. The revised proposal has much wider political scope and is concerned with discouraging car use and improving public bus services. Thus there are also proposals to increase car parking charges, to reduce the number of car park spaces (by selling off certain car parks for housing development) and to increase the frequency, quality and punctuality of buses. The project scope appears to have been widened considerably, although this will have to be confirmed with the new project sponsor.

Only once the scope of the revised project been agreed can revised project objectives be agreed and a new project plan developed, allocating the resources available to the project to the tasks required to complete the project. It is at this stage that the project manager will be able to work out if the proposed delivery date (a project constraint) is still manageable. If it is not, then some kind of agreement will have to be forged with the project sponsor. This may be to reduce the scope of the project, add more resources, or some combination of the two.

(b) Cost benefit

The re-defined project will have much more tangible effects than its predecessor and these could be classified using the standard approach suggested in the scenario. Benefits would include:

– One-off financial benefit from selling certain car parks

– this appears to be a predictable financial benefit of $325,000 which can be confidently included in a cost/benefit analysis.

– Increased income from public bus use – this appears to be a measurable benefit, in that it is an aspect of performance which can be measured (for example, bus fares collected per day), but it is not possible to estimate how much income will actually increase until the project is completed. – Increased income from car parks

– this appears to be a quantifiable benefit if the assumption is made that usage of the car parks will stay at 95%. There may indeed be sufficient confidence to define it as a financial benefit. Car park places will be reduced from 1,000 to 800, but the increase in fees will compensate for this reduction in capacity. Current expected daily income is 1,000 x $3 x 0·95 = $2,850. Future expected income will be 800 x $4 x 0·95 = $3,040.

– Improved punctuality of buses – this will again be a measurable benefit. It will be defined in terms of a Service Level promised to the residents of Brighttown. Improved punctuality might also help tempt a number of vehicle users to use public transport instead.

– Reduced emissions – buses are more energy efficient and emit less carbon dioxide than the conventional vehicles used by most of the inhabitants of Brighttown. This benefit should again be measurable (but non-financial) and should benefit the whole of the town, not just areas around traffic lights.

– Improved perception of the town – the incoming mayor believes that her policy will help attract green consumers and green companies to the town. Difficulties in classifying what is meant by these terms makes this likely to be an observable benefit, where a group, such as the Go Green team, established by the council itself can decide (based on their judgement) whether the benefit has been realised or not.

The costs of implementing the project will also have to be re-assessed. These costs will now include:

– The cost of purchasing more buses to meet the increased demand and frequency of service.

– The operational costs of running more buses, including salary costs of more bus drivers.

– Costs associated with the disposal of car parks.

– Costs associated with slowing down drivers (both economic and emotional).

The technical implementation requirements of the project will also change and this is almost certain to have cost implications because a solution will have to be developed which allows buses to be prioritised. A feasibility study will have to be commissioned to examine whether such a solution is technically feasible and, if it is, the costs of the solution will have to be estimated and entered into the cost-benefit analysis.

(c) A stakeholder grid (Mendelow) provides a framework for understanding how project team members should communicate with each stakeholder or stakeholder group. The grid itself has two axes. One axis is concerned with the power or influence of the stakeholder in this particular project. The other axis is concerned with the stakeholder’s interest in the project.

The incoming mayor: High power and high interest. The mayor is a key player in the project and should be carefully and actively managed throughout. The mayor is currently enthusiastic about the project and this enthusiasm has to be sustained. As the likely project sponsor, it will be the mayor’s responsibility to promote the project internally and to make resources available to it. It will also be up to her to ensure that the promised business benefits are actually delivered. However, she is also the person who can cancel the project at any time.

OfRoad – a government agency: OfRoad were critical of the previous mayor’s justification for the project. They felt that the business case was solely based on intangible benefits and lacked credibility. It is likely that they will be more supportive of the revised proposals for two reasons. Firstly, the proposal uses the classification of benefits which it has suggested. Secondly, the proposal includes tangible benefits which can confidently be included in a cost-benefit analysis. OfRoad is likely to have high power (because it can intervene in local transport decisions) but relatively low interest in this particular project as the town appears to be following its guidelines. An appropriate management strategy would be to keep watch and monitor the situation, making sure that nothing happens on the project which would cause the agency to take a sudden interest in it.

The private motorist of Brighttown: Most of these motorists will have a high interest in the project, because it impacts them directly; but, individually, they have very little power. Their chance to influence policy has just passed, and mayoral elections are not due for another five years. The suggested stakeholder management approach here is to keep them informed. However, their response will have to be monitored. If they organise themselves and band together as a group, they might be able to stage disruptive actions which might raise their power and have an impact on the project. This makes the point that stakeholder management is a continual process, as stakeholders may take up different positions in the grid as they organise themselves or as the project progresses.


(ii) vehicles. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Vehicles
■ Agreeing opening ledger balances of cost and accumulated depreciation (and impairment losses) to the non-current
asset register to confirm the comparative amounts.
■ Physically inspecting a sample of vehicles (selected from the asset register) to confirm existence and condition (for
evidence of impairment). If analytical procedures use management information on mileage records this should be
checked (e.g. against milometers) at the same time.
■ Agreeing additions to purchase invoices to confirm cost.
■ Reviewing the terms of all lease contracts entered into during the year to ensure that finance leases have been
capitalised.
■ Agreeing the depreciation rates applied to finance lease assets to those applied to similar purchased assets.
■ Reviewing repairs and maintenance accounts (included in materials expense) to ensure that there are no material
items of capital nature that have been expensed (i.e. a test for completeness).


(b) Briefly describe the five extreme scores identified by Blake and Mouton. (5 marks)

正确答案:
Part (b):
Blake and Mouton analysed the extreme scores as:
1,1 – Impoverished Management
low concern for production and low concern for people.
This manager only makes the minimum effort in either area and will make the smallest possible effort required to get
the job done.
1,9 – Country Club Management
low concern for production and high concern for people.
This manager is thoughtful and attentive to the need of the people, which leads to a comfortable friendly organisation
atmosphere but very little ‘work’ is actually achieved.
9,1 – Task Management
high concern for production and low concern for people.
This manager is only concerned with production and arranges work in such a way that people interference is minimised.
5,5 – Middle of the Road Management
reasonable concern for both dimensions.
This manager is able to balance the task in hand and motivate the people to achieve these tasks.
9,9 – Team Management
High concern for production and high concern for people.
This manager integrates the two areas to foster working together and high production to produce true team leadership.
(Candidates may wish to draw the grid and describe these scores).


The following statements have been made about life cycle costing:

(i) It focuses on the short-term by identifying costs at the beginning of a product’s life cycle

(ii) It identifies all costs which arise in relation to the product each year and then calculates the product’s profitability on an annual basis

(iii) It accumulates a product’s costs over its whole life time and works out the overall profitability of a product

(iv) It allocates costs to each stage of a product’s life cycle and writes them off at the end of each stage

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

A.(i) and (iii)

B.(iii) only

C.(i) and (iv)

D.(ii) only

正确答案:B

All of the statements are false except statement (iii).


3 Fran?ois, Demetris, José and Giuseppe are a group of students from different Mediterranean countries, taking their

MBA in a large UK city. As part of their course requirements, the group has to come up with an innovative business

idea, research into the feasibility of that idea and then present their business plan to a panel. After considerable

brainstorming they have come up with the idea of a themed restaurant based around Mediterranean cooking, menus

and service provisionally called ‘Casa del Mediterraneo’ and located in the city centre.

Initial research has revealed suitable premises to rent, but also the severe competition they will face in a city that is

very cosmopolitan and well provided for with restaurants serving cuisine from many parts of the world. The city has

a student population of around 100,000 and this, together with a young working population, means that there is a

very vibrant social life and a real willingness to sample food from different parts of the world.

Required:

(a) Identify and evaluate the critical success factors and associated competences that the group should consider

in developing their business plan for the restaurant. (12 marks)

正确答案:

(a) New ventures are notoriously risky and it is vital that the group has a clear idea of the factors that will be critical to the
restaurant’s success and the capabilities and competences needed to achieve their critical success factors. Johnson, Scholes
and Whittington define critical success factors as ‘those product (or service) features that are particularly valued by a group
of customers, and, therefore where the organisation must excel to outperform. the competition’. The group have chosen to
enter a highly competitive market and one where it is very difficult to create a distinctive product or service for the customer.
It is important in establishing what factors are important that they know the features their potential customers will particularly
value in the restaurant business. All too often firms design products or services on the basis of what the ‘expert’ inside the
company thinks the customer wants. One of the major problems in setting up a new restaurant is that customers can easily
compare one restaurant with another. Often they are in close proximity making all aspects of the service, particularly price,
easily open to customer evaluation.
Clearly, service will be a critical factor but precisely how will it be defined? Does the customer look for fast food service with
an emphasis on being served quickly? This seems unlikely and a more likely requirement is that the table service replicates
the friendly ambience experienced at restaurants on the Mediterranean. Many of their customers will have experienced this
first-hand and this would reinforce the Mediterranean theme. To deliver this service the waiters/waitresses will need
appropriate training. The menu and quality of food will be key factors – they lie at the heart of the reason for setting up the
business. How is distinctiveness to be achieved? The quality of the chef and kitchen staff will determine the quality of the
food served. The design of the restaurant and its layout and seating are also features, which it is important to get right. Aboveall, there is the need to create a price/value combination that is difficult for competitors to beat.

The critical success factors will stem from using the restaurant’s resources in a distinctive way. In Hamel and Prahalad’s
terms, there are three tests that can identify core competences in a company. Firstly, the core competence has the potential
for transfer across a variety of markets – less likely in a small business. Secondly, a core competence should make a significant
contribution to the perceived customer benefits of the end product or service. Finally, the core competence will be difficult for
a competitor to imitate. In service businesses such as restaurants, imitation of less tangible factors such as the quality of tableservice may be much more difficult to copy than the features designed into a tangible product.


Section B – TWO questions ONLY to be attempted

Perkin manufactures electronic components for export worldwide, from factories in Ceeland, for use in smartphones and hand held gaming devices. These two markets are supplied with similar components by two divisions, Phones Division (P) and Gaming Division (G). Each division has its own selling, purchasing, IT and research and development functions, but separate IT systems. Some manufacturing facilities, however, are shared between the two divisions.

Perkin’s corporate objective is to maximise shareholder wealth through innovation and continuous technological improvement in its products. The manufacturers of smartphones and gaming devices, who use Perkin’s components, update their products frequently and constantly compete with each other to launch models which are technically superior.

Perkin has a well-established incremental budgeting process. Divisional managers forecast sales volumes and costs months in advance of the budget year. These divisional budgets are then scrutinised by the main board, and revised significantly by them in line with targets they have set for the business. The finalised budgets are often approved after the start of the accounting year. Under pressure to deliver consistent returns to institutional shareholders, the board does not tolerate failure by either division to achieve the planned net profit for the year once the budget is approved. Last year’s results were poor compared to the annual budget. Divisional managers, who are appraised on the financial performance of their own division, have complained about the length of time that the budgeting process takes and that the performance of their divisions could have been better but was constrained by the budgets which were set for them.

In P Division, managers had failed to anticipate the high popularity of a new smartphone model incorporating a large screen designed for playing games, and had not made the necessary technical modifications to the division’s own components. This was due to the high costs of doing so, which had not been budgeted for. Based on the original sales forecast, P Division had already committed to manufacturing large quantities of the existing version of the component and so had to heavily discount these in order to achieve the planned sales volumes.

A critical material in the manufacture of Perkin’s products is silver, which is a commodity which changes materially in price according to worldwide supply and demand. During the year supplies of silver were reduced significantly for a short period of time and G Division paid high prices to ensure continued supply. Managers of G Division were unaware that P Division held large inventories of silver which they had purchased when the price was much lower.

Initially, G Division accurately forecasted demand for its components based on the previous years’ sales volumes plus the historic annual growth rate of 5%. However, overall sales volumes were much lower than budgeted. This was due to a fire at the factory of their main customer, which was then closed for part of the year. Reacting to this news, managers at G Division took action to reduce costs, including closing one of the three R&D facilities in the division.

However, when the customer’s factory reopened, G Division was unwilling to recruit extra staff to cope with increased demand; nor would P Division re-allocate shared manufacturing facilities to them, in case demand increased for its own products later in the year. As a result, Perkin lost the prestigious preferred supplier status from their main customer who was unhappy with G Division’s failure to effectively respond to the additional demand. The customer had been forced to purchase a more expensive, though technically superior, component from an alternative manufacturer.

The institutional shareholders’ representative, recently appointed to the board, has asked you as a performance management expert for your advice. ‘We need to know whether Perkin’s budgeting process is appropriate for the business, and how this contributed to last year’s poor performance’, she said, ‘and more importantly, how do we need to change the process to prevent this happening in the future, such as a move to beyond budgeting.’

Required:

(a) Evaluate the weaknesses in Perkin’s current budgeting system and whether it is suitable for the environment in which Perkin operates. (13 marks)

(b) Evaluate the impact on Perkin of moving to beyond budgeting. (12 marks)

正确答案:

Tutor note: This is a detailed solution and candidates would not be expected to produce an answer of this length.

(a) Weaknesses in the current budget process at Perkin

Perkin uses a traditional approach to budgeting, which has a number of weaknesses.

First of all the budgeting system does not seem aligned with Perkin’s corporate objective which focuses on innovation and continuous product improvement. Innovation is a key competitive advantage to both component and device manufacturers in this industry and the products which incorporate Perkin’s components are subject to rapid technological change as well as changes in consumer trends. The markets in which the two divisions operate appear to be evolving, as seen by the high popularity of the smartphone model which was designed for playing games. This may mean the distinction between smartphone and gaming devices could be becoming less clear cut. Management time would probably be better spent considering these rapid changes and currently the budgeting process does not facilitate that.

In reality, the budget process at Perkin is time consuming and probably therefore a costly exercise. Divisional budgets go through a lengthy process of drafting and then revision by the main board before they are approved. The approval often happens after the start of the period to which they relate, at which point the budgets are already out of date. This also means divisional managers are trying to plan activities for the next financial year without a set of finalised targets agreed, which could impact the effectiveness of decisions made.

Another weakness is that the budgets are only prepared annually, which is clearly too infrequent for a business such as Perkin. The process is also rigid and inflexible as deviations from the planned targets are not tolerated. Sticking to rigid, annual budgets can lead to problems such as P Division not being able to cope with increasing popularity of a particular product and even other short-term changes in demand like those driven by seasonal factors, or one-off events such as the factory fire. Linked to this problem of budgetary constraints is that to cut costs to achieve the budgeted net profit, managers closed one of the three research and development facilities in G Division. As identified at the outset, a successful research and development function is a key source of long-term competitive advantage to Perkin.

It also appears that Perkin fails to flex the budgets and consequently the fixed budgets had discouraged divisional managers from deviating from the original plan. P Division did not make technical modifications to its components due to the cost of doing so, which meant they were unable to supply components for use in the new model of smartphone and had to discount the inventories of the old version. It is unclear why G Division did not take on additional staff to cope with increased demand following reopening of their customer’s factory, but it may be because managers felt constrained by the budget. This then caused long-term detriment to Perkin as they lost the preferred supplier status with their main customer.

Another problem created by annual budgeting is the management of short-term changes in costs and prices. A key component of Perkin’s products is silver, which fluctuates in price, and though it is not clear how much effect this has on Perkin’s costs, any problems in supply could disrupt production even if only a small amount of silver were required. Also Perkin exports goods worldwide and probably also purchases materials, including silver, from overseas. The business is therefore exposed to short-term movements in foreign currency exchange rates which may affect costs and selling prices.

Similarly, there also seems to be considerable uncertainty in sales volumes and prices which creates problems in the forecasting process for the two divisions. P Division did not anticipate the high demand for the new component which meant P Division had to discount products it had already manufactured in order to achieve its forecast sales volumes. G Division did correctly forecast the demand, but based on past growth in the market which may be too simplistic in a rapidly changing industry. Lack of up-to-date information will hinder decision-making and overall performance at Perkin. Perkin would perhaps be better adopting a rolling basis for forecasting.

The two divisions share manufacturing facilities and are likely to compete for other resources during the budgeting process. The current budgeting system does not encourage resource, information or knowledge sharing, for example, expertise in forecasting silver requirements. Divisional managers are appraised on the financial performance of their own division and hence are likely to prioritise the interests of their own division above those of Perkin as a whole. P Division would not re-allocate its manufacturing facilities to G Division, even though G Division needed this to cope with extra demand following reopening of the customer’s factory. The current system is therefore not encouraging goal congruence between the divisions and Perkin as a whole and a budgeting system, if done effectively, should encourage co-ordination and co-operation.

Managers may find the budgeting process demotivating because it is time-consuming for them and then the directors override the forecast which they had made. It is also unfair and demotivating to staff to appraise them on factors which are outside their control. This also identifies another weakness in Perkin’s budgeting system related to control as there does not seem to be any planning and operating variance analysis performed to assess exactly where performance is lacking and so no appropriate management information is provided. In fact it is not even clear just how often divisional managers receive reports on performance throughout the year. Any budgeting system without regular feedback would be ineffective. It should even be noted that for the industry in which Perkin operates the use of only budgetary targets as a measure of performance is narrow and internal. It should be utilising information from external sources as well to assess performance in a more relevant and contextual way.

Given the rapidly changing external environment and the emphasis on innovation and continuous product development, the current traditional budgeting method does not seem appropriate for Perkin.

(b) Beyond budgeting moves away from traditional budgeting processes and is suitable for businesses operating in a rapidly changing external environment and has the following features:

1. Encourages management to focus on the present and the future. Performance is assessed by reference to external benchmarks, utilising rolling forecasts and more non-financial information. This encourages a longer term view.

2. More freedom is given to managers to make decisions, which are consistent with the organisation’s goals and achieving competitive success.

3. Resources are made available on demand, for example, to enable a division to take advantage of an opportunity in the market, rather than being constrained by budgets.

4. Management focus is switched to the customer and managers are motivated towards actions which benefit the whole organisation, not just their own divisions.

5. Effective information systems are required to provide fast and easily accessible information across the whole organisation to allow for robust planning and control at all levels.

Taking each of the elements of beyond budgeting in turn, the impact of introducing this technique into Perkin can be assessed.

At Perkin, there are rapid technological changes in the products being produced by customers and competitors as a result of changes demanded by the market, which mean that Perkin must respond and continuously innovate and develop its products. This will support Perkin’s corporate objective. Consequently, this means that Perkin must change its plans frequently to be able to compete effectively with other component manufacturers and therefore will need to move away from annual incremental budgeting to introducing regular rolling forecasts. This process will need supporting by KPIs which will have a longer term focus. The impact of this will be that Perkin will need to develop a coherent set of strategies which supports its corporate objective, which will then need to be translated into targets and appropriate KPIs selected and developed. It will also mean that performance measures at the operational level will need to be revised from annual budgetary targets to these longer term objectives. Management at all levels will require training on the production of rolling forecasts and Perkin will need to assess if additional resources will also be required to run this new system.

Beyond budgeting focuses on the long-term success of the business by division managers working towards targets which may be non-financial. The use of external benchmarks and non-financial information will mean Perkin will need to put processes in place to collect this information and analyse it to assess performance. This will be a learning process as Perkin does not currently do this. The status of preferred supplier with key customers, for example, would be important to the long-term success of the business and this could be an objective which Perkin sets for its divisional managers.

Beyond budgeting allows authority to be delegated to suitably trained and supported managers to take decisions in the long-term interests of the business. It allows managers to respond quickly and effectively to changes in the external environment, and encourages them to develop innovative solutions to external change. In Perkin, budgets proposed by divisional managers are changed by the board to reflect its overall plans for the business. This means that a change in the approach to communication between the board and the divisions will be necessary as Perkin would need to switch from the top down process currently adopted to a more devolved decision-making structure. This will again require training for management to enable them to be ready to deal with this delegated authority as it will be very different from their existing approach.

Traditional budgeting may constrain managers who are not allowed to fail to meet the approved budget. This can be seen when P Division did not adapt its components because it did not want to incur the costs of doing so, which had not been budgeted for. Similarly, prices of raw materials are known to be volatile. Beyond budgeting makes resources available for managers to take advantage of opportunities in the market, such as the smartphone designed for playing games. Managers would also be able to react to changes in the price of materials or changes in foreign currency exchange rates, for example, by having the authority to purchase silver for inventory at times when the price of silver is low. This will mean that as a result there will be fewer budgetary constraints; however, these resources and targets will still need to be effectively managed. This management will mean that strategic initiatives invested in will need monitoring rather than closely scrutinising departmental budgets, which will be a significant change in Perkin.

In Perkin, the two divisions share some manufacturing facilities and are likely to compete for other resources, for example, when setting budgets. When manufacturing facilities are in short supply, each division will prioritise its own requirements rather than those of the business as a whole. Beyond budgeting encourages managers to work together for the good of the business and to share knowledge and resources. This is important in a business such as Perkin where product innovation is key and where the activities and products of the two divisions are similar. This coordinated approach will be new to Perkin so there will be a culture change. Also, the customer-oriented element of beyond budgeting is key here and will require the setup of customer focused teams which will require more harmonised actions in the divisions.

Each division currently has its own IT systems. In order to effectively share knowledge and to be able to respond to the external environment, which are key elements of beyond budgeting, it would be preferable for them to have shared IT facilities. This will mean that Perkin may have to invest in new technology capable of sharing information across the organisation in a rapid and open fashion but also be able to collect all relevant comparative data to allow for continuous monitoring of performance. This will facilitate better planning and control across all levels of Perkin.

With appropriate training of managers and investment in information systems, it would be relevant for Perkin to adopt beyond budgeting because of the rapid changes in the external environment in which it operates.


PV Co is evaluating an investment proposal to manufacture Product W33, which has performed well in test marketing trials conducted recently by the company’s research and development division. The following information relating to this investment proposal has now been prepared.

Initial investment $2 million

Selling price (current price terms) $20 per unit

Expected selling price inflation 3% per year

Variable operating costs (current price terms) $8 per unit

Fixed operating costs (current price terms) $170,000 per year

Expected operating cost inflation 4% per year

The research and development division has prepared the following demand forecast as a result of its test marketing trials. The forecast reflects expected technological change and its effect on the anticipated life-cycle of Product W33.

It is expected that all units of Product W33 produced will be sold, in line with the company’s policy of keeping no inventory of finished goods. No terminal value or machinery scrap value is expected at the end of four years, when production of Product W33 is planned to end. For investment appraisal purposes, PV Co uses a nominal (money) discount rate of 10% per year and a target return on capital employed of 30% per year. Ignore taxation.

Required:

(a) Identify and explain the key stages in the capital investment decision-making process, and the role of

investment appraisal in this process. (7 marks)

(b) Calculate the following values for the investment proposal:

(i) net present value;

(ii) internal rate of return;

(iii) return on capital employed (accounting rate of return) based on average investment; and

(iv) discounted payback period. (13 marks)

(c) Discuss your findings in each section of (b) above and advise whether the investment proposal is financially acceptable. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(a)Thekeystagesinthecapitalinvestmentdecision-makingprocessareidentifyinginvestmentopportunities,screeninginvestmentproposals,analysingandevaluatinginvestmentproposals,approvinginvestmentproposals,andimplementing,monitoringandreviewinginvestments.IdentifyinginvestmentopportunitiesInvestmentopportunitiesorproposalscouldarisefromanalysisofstrategicchoices,analysisofthebusinessenvironment,researchanddevelopment,orlegalrequirements.Thekeyrequirementisthatinvestmentproposalsshouldsupporttheachievementoforganisationalobjectives.ScreeninginvestmentproposalsIntherealworld,capitalmarketsareimperfect,soitisusualforcompaniestoberestrictedintheamountoffinanceavailableforcapitalinvestment.Companiesthereforeneedtochoosebetweencompetinginvestmentproposalsandselectthosewiththebeststrategicfitandthemostappropriateuseofeconomicresources.AnalysingandevaluatinginvestmentproposalsCandidateinvestmentproposalsneedtobeanalysedindepthandevaluatedtodeterminewhichofferthemostattractiveopportunitiestoachieveorganisationalobjectives,forexampletoincreaseshareholderwealth.Thisisthestagewhereinvestmentappraisalplaysakeyrole,indicatingforexamplewhichinvestmentproposalshavethehighestnetpresentvalue.ApprovinginvestmentproposalsThemostsuitableinvestmentproposalsarepassedtotherelevantlevelofauthorityforconsiderationandapproval.Verylargeproposalsmayrequireapprovalbytheboardofdirectors,whilesmallerproposalsmaybeapprovedatdivisionallevel,andsoon.Onceapprovalhasbeengiven,implementationcanbegin.Implementing,monitoringandreviewinginvestmentsThetimerequiredtoimplementtheinvestmentproposalorprojectwilldependonitssizeandcomplexity,andislikelytobeseveralmonths.Followingimplementation,theinvestmentprojectmustbemonitoredtoensurethattheexpectedresultsarebeingachievedandtheperformanceisasexpected.Thewholeoftheinvestmentdecision-makingprocessshouldalsobereviewedinordertofacilitateorganisationallearningandtoimprovefutureinvestmentdecisions.


(c) Briefly outline the corporation tax (CT) issues that Tay Limited should consider when deciding whether to

acquire the shares or the assets of Tagus LDA. You are not required to discuss issues relating to transfer

pricing. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(c) (1) Acquisition of shares
Status
The acquisition of shares in Tagus LDA will add another associated company to the group. This may have an adverse
effect on the rates of corporation tax paid by the two existing group companies, particularly Tay Limited.
Taxation of profits
Profits will be taxed in Portugal. Any profits remitted to the UK as dividends will be taxable as Schedule D Case V income,
but will attract double tax relief. Double tax relief will be available against two types of tax suffered in Portugal. Credit
will be given for any tax withheld on payments from Tagus LDA to Tay Limited and relief will also be available for the
underlying tax as Tay Limited owns at least 10% of the voting power of Tagus LDA. The underlying tax is the tax
attributable to the relevant profits from which the dividend was paid. Double tax relief is given at the lower rate of the
UK tax and the foreign tax (withholding and underlying taxes) suffered.
Losses
As Tagus LDA is a non-UK resident company, losses arising in Tagus LDA cannot be group relieved against profits of the
two UK companies. Similarly, any UK trading losses cannot be used against profits generated by Tagus LDA.
(2) Acquisition of assets
Status
The business of Tagus will be treated as a branch of Tay Limited i.e. an extension of the UK company’s activities. The
number of associated companies will be unaffected.
Taxation of profits
Tay Limited will be treated as having a permanent establishment in Portugal. Profits attributable to the Tagus business
will thus still be taxed in Portugal. In addition, the profits will be taxed in the UK as trading income. Double tax relief
will be available for the tax already suffered in Portugal at the lower of the two rates.
Capital allowances will be available. As the assets in question will not previously have been subject to a claim for UK
capital allowances, there will be no cost restriction and the consideration attributable to each asset will form. the basis
for the capital allowance claim.
Losses
The Tagus trade is part of Tay Limited’s trade, so any losses incurred by the Portuguese trade will automatically be offset
against the trading profits of the UK trade, and vice versa.


(iii) State the value added tax (VAT) and stamp duty (SD) issues arising as a result of inserting Bold plc as

a holding company and identify any planning actions that can be taken to defer or minimise these tax

costs. (4 marks)

You should assume that the corporation tax rates for the financial year 2005 and the income tax rates

and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this question.

正确答案:
(iii) Bold plc will be making a taxable supply of services, likely to exceed the VAT threshold. It should therefore consider
registering for VAT – either immediately on a voluntary basis, or when its cumulative taxable supplies in the previous
twelve months exceed £60,000.
As an alternative, the new group can apply for a group VAT registration. This will simplify its VAT administration as intragroup
transactions are broadly disregarded for VAT purposes, and only one VAT return is required for the group as a
whole.
Stamp duty normally applies at 0·5% on the consideration payable in respect of transactions in shares. However, an
exemption is available in the case of a takeover, reconstruction or amalgamation where there is no real change in
ownership, i.e. the new shareholdings mirror the old shareholdings, and the transaction is for commercial purposes. The
insertion of a new holding company over an existing company, as proposed here, would qualify for this exemption.
There is no VAT on transactions in shares.


2021ACCA/CAT考试题库精选9章 第9章


(iv) Tyre recently undertook a sales campaign whereby customers can obtain free car accessories, by presenting a

coupon, which has been included in an advertisement in a national newspaper, on the purchase of a vehicle.

The offer is valid for a limited time period from 1 January 2006 until 31 July 2006. The management are unsure

as to how to treat this offer in the financial statements for the year ended 31 May 2006.

(5 marks)

Required:

Advise the directors of Tyre on how to treat the above items in the financial statements for the year ended

31 May 2006.

(The mark allocation is shown against each of the above items)

正确答案:
(iv) Car accessories
An obligation should not be recognised for the coupons and no provision created under IAS37 ‘Provisions, Contingent
Liabilities and Contingent Assets’. A provision should only be recognised where there is an obligating event. There has to be
a present obligation (legal or constructive), the probability of an outflow of resources and the ability to make a reliable estimate
of the amount of the obligation. These conditions do not seem to have been met. Until the vehicle is purchased the
accessories cannot be obtained. That is the point at which the present obligation arises, the outflow of resources occurs and
an estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. When the car is purchased, the accessories become part of the
cost of the sale. The revenue recognised will be the amount received from the customer (the sales price). The revenue will
not be grossed up to include the value of the accessories.


(c) Outline the problems with references. (7 marks)

(15 marks)

正确答案:
Part (c)
There can be significant problems with references, these include the fact that most referees are well known to the applicant and
hesitate to say anything critical. However, the more skilful reference reader learns to look for what is conspicuous by omission
although there is always the risk that the writer merely forgot.
Often there are glowing tributes designed to aid the candidate on their way and some can be too ambiguous to be useful.
It is also important to note that references are poor predictors of future performance, are time consuming for the referee and the
subsequent reader. A particular problem is that employers who want to rid themselves of unsatisfactory employees could write an
enthusiastic reference, or at best one which leaves a lot unsaid.
However, care should be taken when providing references. Potentially, there can be legal consequences if a reference is misleading
or misrepresents the person for whom the reference is provided.
In addition, problems can arise when references are sought too early in the recruitment process and therefore breach confidentiality.


(b) Explain the major benefits of pursuing a policy of internal development. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The major benefits of pursuing a policy of internal development that may accrue to Taliesin Ltd are as follows:
– By confining their activities to its internal environment the company avoids the need to manage the integration of
businesses which is necessitated by an acquisition. Management teams, when considering the acquisition of another
organisation, very often underestimate the costs of integration.
– There is no need for the board of directors of Taliesin Ltd to familiarise itself with different organisational and national
cultures, values etc, thereby avoiding many potential problems.
– The board of directors of Taliesin Ltd is better able to control the activities of the business and the need for more complex
supply chains and strategic alliances with foreign organisations is rendered unnecessary.
– All investments are made at market price whereas if the board of directors was to attempt to grow the business
acquisition then significant outlays would probably be made in respect of purchased goodwill.
– As the organisation develops and expands, staff are provided with development and learning activities that may
precipitate an increase in the level of their commitment to the organisation.


(ii) Comment briefly on the use of its own tree plantations as a source of raw materials by Our Timbers Ltd.

(3 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) The use of its own tree plantations as a source of raw materials not only ensures available supplies of timber but may
also demonstrate that the directors of Our Timbers Ltd are mindful of the need for careful planning in the consumption
of natural resources. This concern with the need to protect the environment will enhance the reputation of Our Timbers
Ltd as an environmentally-conscious organisation which in turn may translate into a source of competitive advantage
since contemporary thought is very much focused on the environmental responsibilities of organisations with particular
regard to the use of natural resources such as timber.


5 All managers need to understand the importance of motivation in the workplace.

Required:

(a) Explain the ‘content theory’ of motivation. (5 marks)

正确答案:
5 The way in which managers treat their employees can significantly influence the satisfaction that the employees derive from their work and thus the overall success of the organisation. Understanding the importance of motivation is therefore an important management skill.
(a) Content theories address the question ‘What are the things that motivate people?’
Content theories are also called need theories (because they concentrate on the needs fulfilled by work) and are based on the notion that all human beings have a set of needs or required outcomes, and according to this theory, these needs can be satisfied through work. The theory focuses on what arouses, maintains and regulates good, directed behaviour and what specific individual forces motivate people. However, content theories assume that everyone responds to motivating factors in the same way and that consequently there is one, best way to motivate everybody.


(ii) Explain how the inclusion of rental income in Coral’s UK income tax computation could affect the

income tax due on her dividend income. (2 marks)

You are not required to prepare calculations for part (b) of this question.

Note: you should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 and for the financial year to

31 March 2007 will continue to apply for the foreseeable future.

正确答案:
(ii) The effect of taxable rental income on the tax due on Coral’s dividend income
Remitting rental income to the UK may cause some of Coral’s dividend income currently falling within the basic rate
band to fall within the higher rate band. The effect of this would be to increase the tax on the gross dividend income
from 0% (10% less the 10% tax credit) to 221/2% (321/2% less 10%).
Tutorial note
It would be equally acceptable to state that the effective rate of tax on the dividend income would increase from 0%
to 25%.


2 It was the final day of a two-week-long audit of Van Buren Company, a longstanding client of Fillmore Pierce Auditors.

In the afternoon, Anne Hayes, a recently qualified accountant and member of the audit team, was following an audit

trail on some cash payments when she discovered what she described to the audit partner, Zachary Lincoln, as an

‘irregularity’. A large and material cash payment had been recorded with no recipient named. The corresponding

invoice was handwritten on a scrap of paper and the signature was illegible.

Zachary, the audit partner, was under pressure to finish the audit that afternoon. He advised Anne to seek an

explanation from Frank Monroe, the client’s finance director. Zachary told her that Van Buren was a longstanding client

of Fillmore Pierce and he would be surprised if there was anything unethical or illegal about the payment. He said

that he had personally been involved in the Van Buren audit for the last eight years and that it had always been

without incident. He also said that Frank Monroe was an old friend of his from university days and that he was certain

that he wouldn’t approve anything unethical or illegal. Zachary said that Fillmore Pierce had also done some

consultancy for Van Buren so it was a very important client that he didn’t want Anne to upset with unwelcome and

uncomfortable questioning.

When Anne sought an explanation from Mr Monroe, she was told that nobody could remember what the payment

was for but that she had to recognise that ‘real’ audits were sometimes a bit messy and that not all audit trails would

end as she might like them to. He also reminded her that it was the final day and both he and the audit firm were

under time pressure to conclude business and get the audit signed off.

When Anne told Zachary what Frank had said, Zachary agreed not to get the audit signed off without Anne’s support,

but warned her that she should be very certain that the irregularity was worth delaying the signoff for. It was therefore

now Anne’s decision whether to extend the audit or have it signed off by the end of Friday afternoon.

Required:

(a) Explain why ‘auditor independence’ is necessary in auditor-client relationships and describe THREE threats

to auditor independence in the case. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Importance of independence
The auditor must be materially independent of the client for the following reasons:
To increase credibility and to underpin confidence in the process. In an external audit, this will primarily be for the benefit of
the shareholders and in an internal audit, it will often be for the audit committee that is, in turn, the recipient of the internal
audit report.
To ensure the reliability of the audit report. Any evidence of lack of independence (or ‘capture’) has the potential to undermine
all or part of the audit report thus rendering the exercise flawed.
To ensure the effectiveness of the investigation of the process being audited. An audit, by definition, is only effective as a
means of interrogation if the parties are independent of each other.
Three threats to independence
There are three threats to independence described in the case.
The same audit partner (Zachary) was assigned to Van Buren in eight consecutive years. This is an association threat and is
a contravention of some corporate governance codes. Both Sarbanes-Oxley and the Smith Guidance (contained in the UK
Combined Code), for example, specify auditor rotation to avoid association threat.
Fillmore Pierce provides more than one service to the same client. One of the threats to independence identified between
Arthur Andersen and Enron after the Enron collapse was an over-dependence on Enron by Andersen arising from the provision
of several services to the same client. Good practice is not to offer additional services to audit clients to avoid the appearance
of compromised independence. Some corporate governance codes formally prohibit this.
The audit partner (Zachary) is an old friend of the financial director of Van Buren (Frank). This ‘familiarity’ threat should be
declared to Fillmore Pierce at the outset and it may disqualify Zachary from acting as audit partner on the Van Buren account.


(c) (i) Identify and describe FOUR quality control procedures that are applicable to the individual audit

engagement; and (8 marks)

正确答案:
(c) (i) ISQC 1 Quality Control for Firms That Perform. Audits and Reviews of Historical Financial Information and Other
Assurance and Related Services Engagements provides guidance on the overall quality control systems that should be
implemented by an audit firm. ISA 220 Quality Control for Audits of Historical Financial Information specifies the quality
control procedures that should be applied by the engagement team in individual audit assignments.
Procedures include the following:
Client acceptance procedures
There should be full documentation, and conclusion on, ethical and client acceptance issues in each audit assignment.
The engagement partner should consider whether members of the audit team have complied with ethical requirements,
for example, whether all members of the team are independent of the client. Additionally, the engagement partner should
conclude whether all acceptance procedures have been followed, for example, that the audit firm has considered the
integrity of the principal owners and key management of the client. Other procedures on client acceptance should
include:
– Obtaining professional clearance from previous auditors
– Consideration of any conflict of interest
– Money laundering (client identification) procedures.
Engagement team
Procedures should be followed to ensure that the engagement team collectively has the skills, competence and time to
perform. the audit engagement. The engagement partner should assess that the audit team, for example:
– Has the appropriate level of technical knowledge
– Has experience of audit engagements of a similar nature and complexity
– Has the ability to apply professional judgement
– Understands professional standards, and regulatory and legal requirements.
Direction
The engagement team should be directed by the engagement partner. Procedures such as an engagement planning
meeting should be undertaken to ensure that the team understands:
– Their responsibilities
– The objectives of the work they are to perform
– The nature of the client’s business
– Risk related issues
– How to deal with any problems that may arise; and
– The detailed approach to the performance of the audit.
The planning meeting should be led by the partner and should include all people involved with the audit. There should
be a discussion of the key issues identified at the planning stage.
Supervision
Supervision should be continuous during the engagement. Any problems that arise during the audit should be rectified
as soon as possible. Attention should be focused on ensuring that members of the audit team are carrying out their work
in accordance with the planned approach to the engagement. Significant matters should be brought to the attention of
senior members of the audit team. Documentation should be made of key decisions made during the audit engagement.
Review
The review process is one of the key quality control procedures. All work performed must be reviewed by a more senior
member of the audit team. Reviewers should consider for example whether:
– Work has been performed in accordance with professional standards
– The objectives of the procedures performed have been achieved
– Work supports conclusions drawn and is appropriately documented.
The review process itself must be evidenced.
Consultation
Finally the engagement partner should arrange consultation on difficult or contentious matters. This is a procedure
whereby the matter is discussed with a professional outside the engagement team, and sometimes outside the audit
firm. Consultations must be documented to show:
– The issue on which the consultation was sought; and
– The results of the consultation.


4 (a) A company may choose to finance its activities mainly by equity capital, with low borrowings (low gearing) or by

relying on high borrowings with relatively low equity capital (high gearing).

Required:

Explain why a highly geared company is generally more risky from an investor’s point of view than a company

with low gearing. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(a) A highly-geared company has an obligation to pay interest on its loans regardless of its profit level. It will show high profits if
its overall rate of return on capital is greater than the rate of interest being paid on its borrowings, but a low profit or a loss if
there is a down-turn in its profit such that the rate of interest to be paid exceeds the return on its assets.